Author - Sri Lanka Archaeology

Bibliography of the published writings of Professor Senerat Paranavitana

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Bibliography of Prof. Senarat Paranavitana

Bibliography of Prof. Senarat Paranavitana

Publications edited by Prof. Senarat Paranavitana

  1. Epigraphia Zeylanica: being lithic and other inscriptions of Ceylon. Vol.3, 1928-1933, edited by S. Paranavitana, London, published for the Govt. of Ceylon by Humphrey Milford, Oxford Univ. Press, 1933, xvi, 358p., 38 pls.
  2. Epigraphia Zeylanica: being lithic and other inscriptions of Ceylon. Vol.4, 1934-1941, edited by S. Paranavitana, London, published for the Govt. of Ceylon by Humphrey Milford, Oxford Univ. Press, 1943, viii, [/fusion_builder_column][fusion_builder_column type=”1_1″ background_position=”left top” background_color=”” border_size=”” border_color=”” border_style=”solid” spacing=”yes” background_image=”” background_repeat=”no-repeat” padding=”” margin_top=”0px” margin_bottom=”0px” class=”” id=”” animation_type=”” animation_speed=”0.3″ animation_direction=”left” hide_on_mobile=”no” center_content=”no” min_height=”none”][4], 328p., 28 pls.
  3. Epigraphia Zeylanica: being lithic and other inscriptions of Ceylon. Vol.5, pt. 1, edited by S. Paranavitana, Colombo, printed at the Govt. Press, 1955. 176p., 7 pls.
  4. Epigraphia Zeylanica: being lithic and other inscriptions of Ceylon. Vol.5, pt. 2, edited by S. Paranavitana and C.E. Godakumbura, Colombo, Archaeological Department of Ceylon, 1963, pp. 177-314, pls. 8-37.
  5. Sir Paul E. Pieris Felicitation Volume. presented by his friends and admirers, ed. by S. Paranavitana and Julius de Lanerolle, Colombo, Sir Paul E. Pieris Felicitation Volume Committee, [Colombo Apothecaries Co. Ltd., printers], 1956, viii, 174p., coloured frontispiece (portrait), 1pl.
  6. University of Ceylon.  History of Ceylon. Vol. 1. from the earliest times to 1505. Part 1: up to the end of the Anuradhapura period. edited by S. Paranavitana. Colombo, Ceylon University Press Board, 1959,  xxxiii, 409p.,xxxi pl., 6 maps.
  7. University of Ceylon.  History of Ceylon. Vol. 1. from the earliest times to 1505. Part 2: from the Cola conquest in 1017 to the arrival of the Portuguese in 1505. edited by S. Paranavitana. Colombo, Ceylon University Press Board, 1960,  xvi, pp. 411-910, xxxii-l pls., 4 maps.1 diagr., 8 tables, bibl., index
  8. A Concise History of Ceylon: from the earliest times to the arrival of the Portuguese in 1505. edited by C.W. Nicholas and S. Paranavitana, Colombo, Ceylon University Press,  1961. xiv, 368 p., 20 pls., 9 maps.
  9. Janakihara of Kumaradasa. edited by S. Paranavitana and C. E. Godakumbura, Colombo, Sri Lanka Sahithya Mandalaya, (Ceylon Academy of Letters), 1967, lxxii, 401 p.

Monographs by Prof. Senerat Paranavitana

  1. The excavations in the citadel of Anuradhapura.Colombo, Ceylon Govt. Press, 1936. vi, 38p., 25 pls., 5 plans. (Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of Ceylon, Vol.3)
  2. The Stupa in Ceylon. Colombo, Ceylon Govt. Press, 1946, [8], 105 p., 22 pls., 13 text illus. (Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey department Vol. 5)
  3. Guide to Polonnaruva. [Colombo, Dept, of Archealogy], 1948, [2], 9 p, 2 pl .2nd edition in 1950, 24p.,  4pl., 9 illus.
  4. The Shrine of Upulvan at Devundara. Colombo, Archaeological Department of Ceylon (Oxford University Press, printers), 1953. iv, [4], 89p., 34pls. (Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of Ceylon. Vol.6)
  5. Art and Architecture of Ceylon: Polonnaruva period. Colombo, Arts Council of Ceylon, 1954, 84p. col. front., 73 illus.  (reprinted in Ceylon Historical Journal , 4(1-4) July 1954 Apr 1955, 69-90, 32 pl. (40 illus.)
  6. Sigiri graffiti, being Sinhalese verses of the eighth, ninth and tenth centuries. London, published for the Govt. of Ceylon by Geoffrey Cumberlege, Oxford Univ. Press, 1956, in 2 volumes.
  7. The God of Adam’s Peak. Ascona (Switzerland), Artibus Asiae Publishers, 1958. 78p., col. Front.,16 pl., text illus. (Artibus Asiae Supplementum XVIII)
  8. Ceylon and Malaysia. Colombo, Lake House Investments Ltd, 1966. X, [4], 234p., 6 pl. (fold)
  9. Sinhalayo. Colombo, Lake House Investments Ltd, [1967, i.e. 1968] 45 p., 106 text illus.
  10. Inscriptions of Ceylon, Vol. 1: containing cave inscriptions in the early Brahmi script. Colombo, Dept. of Archaeology, 1970, xi, cxxix, 136 p, 130pl., (of inscriptions) 1 pl., fold map, fold chart, (Archaeological Survey of Ceylon)
  11. Art of the Ancient Sinhalese.  Colombo, Lake House Investments Ltd, [1971], [4], 141p., 3 Col pl., 112 illus.
  12. The Greek and the Mauryas. Colombo, Lake House Investments Ltd, [1971] vii, 188p., 7 pl.
  13. Sinhalayo. 2nd revised edition, Colombo, Lake House Investments Ltd, 1970 [i.e. 1971], 61 p., 128 text illus.
  14. Glimpses of Ceylon’s past. Colombo, Lake House Investments Ltd, [1972], 199p., 16pl., (end paper map of plan of Sigiriya)
  15. Story of Sigiri. Colombo, Lake House Investment Ltd, [1972], ix, 153, 128p, front (Port)  4 pl. end paper map.
  16. Inscriptions of Ceylon, Vol. 2: Part I. Late Brahmi Inscriptions.Colombo, Dept. of Archaeology, 1983, 123p., 42pl. (posthumous)
  17. Inscriptions of Ceylon, Vol. 2: Part II.  Late Brahmi Inscriptions. edited by Malani Dias, Colombo, Dept. of Archaeology, 2001, viii, 125-361 pp., LVI pl. (posthumous)

 

Chapters and columns authored by Prof. Senarat Paranavitana

  1. Buddhist Festivals in Ceylon. Buddhistic Studies, edited by B.C. Law, Calcutta, Thacker, Spink, 1931, Chapter 17, pp. 529-546.
  2. TempleRegulations, about A.D. 1300 (Translation and notes). Temple of the  tooth in Kandy,  by A.M. Hocart, London, 1931, pp. 34-37. (Memoir of the Archaeological Survey of Ceylon, Vol. 5)
  3. [Description and Identification of some bas- reliefs at Nagarjunakonda]. The Buddhist antiquities at Nagarjunakonda, Madras Presidency, by A.H. Longhurst, Delhi, 1938, pp. 34-62. (Memoir of the Archaeological Survey of India, no.54, pt.II)
  4. Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara in Ceylon. B.C. Law Volume,  Part II, edited by D.R. Bhandarkar, Poona, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, 1946, pp. 15-18.
  5. History of Ceylon (from Vasabha to Moggallana I). The Vakataka – Gupta  Age (circa 200-550 AD), edited by R.C. Majumdar and A.S. Altekar, Banaras, 1946. Chapter 13, pp.231-243. (New History of the Indian People, Vol. 6)
  6. The evolution of the Sinhalese Language. Sri Sumangala Sabdakosaya: a Sinhalese – Sinhalese dictionary,  by W. Sorata Thera. Part 2, Colombo, 1956, pp. 1181-1199.
  7. Architecture (Ceylon). Encyclopeadia of Buddhism, edited by G.P. Malalasekera, volume of specimen articles, Colombo, Colombo Bauddha Mandalaya and Dept. of Cultural Affairs, 1957, pp. 8-22, 10 illus.
  8. Ceylon. Enciclopedia Universale dell’ Arte, Roma, Instituto per la collaborazione culturale, 1960. Vol.3, Columns 415-420, map. also in Encyclopedia of World Art, (English language edition)  New York, McGraw – Hill, 1960. Vol.3, Columns 325-330, map.
  9. Ceylon, correnti a tradizioni, Encyclopeadia Universale dell’ Arte, Roma, Instituto per la collaborazione culturale, 1960, Vol. 3, Columns 420-428, illus. also in Encyclopedia of World Art, (English language edition) New York, McGraw – Hill, 1960, entitled ‘Ceylonese Art’ Columns, 330-339. illus.
  10. The Mahavihara and other ancient seats of learning.  Education in Ceylon.  (from the 6th century BC to the present day). A Centenary Volume, Colombo, Ministry of Cultural Affairs, [1969], part 1, chapter 6, pp. 52-59, 1 pl. map.
  11. The learning of Pali and Sanskrit and its influence on Sinhala literary trends of the period.  Education in Ceylon.  (from the 6th century BC to the present day). A Centenary Volume. Colombo, Ministry of Cultural Affairs, [1969], part 1, chapter 16, pp. 163-73.
  12. Traditions about Kalidasa that were prevalent in Srivijaya.  Anjali : papers on Indology and Buddhism,  A Felicitation volume presented to Oliver Hector de Alwis Wijesekera on his sixtieth birthday, edited by Jayadeva Tilakasiri, Peradeniya, The Felicitation Volume Editorial Committee, [1970], chapter 17,  pp.105-111
  13. The withdrawal of the Sinhalese from the ancient capitals. The collapse of the Rajarata civilization in Ceylon and the drift to the south-west, edited by K. Indrapala, Peradeniya, Ceylon Studies Seminar, 1971, chapter 4, pp. 49-59.
  14. Introduction. Register of ancient monuments,  [1972], pp. xi-xii, Colombo, Ministry of Cultural Affairs, Ceylon, 1972, xx, 814p. (Mimeographed text bound with printed title cover)
  15. References to Greek and Roman celebrities in ancient historical writings of Ceylon,  Palma,  ed. By L.W. de Silva. Colombo, The Classical Association of Ceylon, 1972 [i.e. 1973] pp.145-146. (posthumous)

Articles published in serial publications

  1. The Cholas and Ceylon. Ceylon Antiquary and Literary Register, (Colombo) Vol. 10, no.2, Oct. 1924, pp. 114-121.
  2. Gaja Bahu I and Mahallaka Naga : their relationship Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch), Vol. 30, no. 80, 1927, pp. 452-454.
  3. Epigraphical summaries. Ceylon Journal of Science (section G), Vol. 1, no. 4, Feb. 1928, pp. 165-173; Vol. 2, no. 1, Dec 1928, pp. 17-29;  Vol. 2, no. 2,  Aug. 1930, pp. 99-128;  Vol. 2, no. 3, Oct 1933, pp. 175-228
  4. Pre- Buddhist religious beliefs in Ceylon. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch), Vol. 31, no. 82, 1929, pp. 302-328.
  5. Three Chola invasions of Ceylon not recorded in the Mahavamsa.  Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch), Vol. 31, no. 82, 1929, pp. 384-387.
  6. Dolmen at Padiyagampola, near Rambukkana. Ceylon Journal of Science (section G), Vol. 2, no. 2, Aug. 1930, pp.96-97, 2 pl.
  7. Pre – historic site known as Kurangupadai- eduttu- vembu in Batticaloa distric. Ceylon Journal of Science (section G),  Vol. 2, no. 2, Aug. 1930, pp. 94-95, 1 pl.
  8. The capital of Ceylon during the ninth and tenth centuries. Ceylon Journal of Science (section G), Vol. 2 no. 2, Aug. 1930, pp.141-147.
  9. The Excavations near the Citadel at Anuradhapura . Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch), Vol. 31, no. 83, 1930, pp. 471-485.
  10. Village communities of Ceylon. Ceylon Literary Register, (Colombo), Vol. 1, no. 2, Feb. 1931, pp. 49-53.
  11. Goddess Manimekala. Ceylon Literary Register, (Colombo), Vol. 1, no. 1,  Jan. 1931, pp. 37-38.
  12. Radaraksa or Ramaraksa? .  Ceylon Literary Register, (Colombo), Vol. 2, no. 1, Jan. 1932, p. 46
  13. Religious intercourse between Ceylon and Siam in the 13th – 15th Centuries. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch), Vol. 32, no.85, 1932, pp. 190-213.
  14. Archaeological summary 1932. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch), Vol. 31, no. 83, 1930, pp. 141-144.
  15. Archaeological summary. Ceylon Journal of Science (section G), Vol. 2, no. 3, Oct. 1933, pp. 149-173, 16 pl.
  16. The statue at the Potgul Vehera, Polonnaruva. Ceylon Journal of Science (section G), Vol. 2 no. 3, Oct, 1933, pp.229-234.
  17. Antiquarian remains in Ceylon. The Surveyour (Ceylon), Vol. 2, no. 2, Nov.1933, pp. 20-21.
  18. Archaeological summary 1933. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch), Vol. 32, no. 86, 1933, pp. 251-254.
  19. Dimbulagala frescoes. Buddhist, (Colombo), Vol. 4, no. 5, Sep. 1933, p. 70.
  20. Excavation and Conservation at Polonnaruva,  Annual Bibliography of Indian Archaeology for the year 1931, (Leiden), Vol. 8, 1933, pp.19-22, 2 pl., 1 plan.
  21. Matrilineal decent in the Sinhalese royal family. Ceylon Journal of Science (section G), Vol. 2, no. 3, Oct. 1933, pp. 235-240.
  22. The statue at the Potgul Vehera, Polonnaruva. Ceylon Journal of Science (section G), Vol. 2, no. 3, Oct. 1933, pp. 229-234.
  23. Archaeological summary 1934. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch), Vol. 33, no. 87, 1934, pp. 4-7.
  24. Recent epigraphical discoveries in Ceylon,  Annual Bibliography of Indian Archaeology for the year 1932, (Leiden), Vol. 7, 1934, pp.33-35.
  25. Medicine and hygiene as practiced in ancient Ceylon. Transaction of the Society of Medical Officers of Health of Ceylon, Vol. 3, no. 1, July 1934, pp. 75-85. (Reprinted in Ceylon Medical Students Magazine, Vol. 3, no. 1, 1952, pp.102-144; reprinted in Ceylon Historical Journal, Vol. 3, no. 2, Oct. 1953, pp.123-135)
  26. The history of Ceylon from the early beginnings to the end of the reign of Mahasena. Buddhist, (Colombo), Vol. 6, no. 5, Sept. 1935, pp. 82-84.
  27. Conservation of the royal bath at Polonnaruva, Annual Bibliography of Indian Archaeology for the year 1933, (Leiden), Vol. 8, 1935, pp.25-27, pl.
  28. The Kalinga dynasty of Ceylon. Journal of the Greater India Society, (Calcutta), Vol. 3, no. 1,  Jan. 1936, pp.57-64
  29. Two royal titles of the early Sinhalese and the origin of kingship in ancient Ceylon. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society Great Britain, July 1936, pp. 443-462.
  30. Brahmi inscriptions recently discovered in Ceylon.  Annual Bibliography of Indian Archaeology for the year 1934, (Leiden), Vol. 9, 1936, pp. 18-19.
  31. Excavation of the Kantaka Chetiya at Mihintale. Annual Bibliography of Indian Archaeology for the year 1934, (Leiden), Vol. 9, 1936, pp.19-21, pl.
  32. Treatment of animals in ancient Ceylon.  The Animals Magazine, [London], Vol. 16, no. 5, May 1937, pp. 108-109, illus.
  33. Epigraphical discoveries in Ceylon during the year 1935.  Annual Bibliography of Indian Archaeology for the year 1935, (Leiden), Vol. 10, 1937, pp. 37-38.
  34. Recent archaeological work in Ceylon. Indian Art and Letters, (London), Vol. 11, no. 1, 1937, pp. 24-34, 4 pl. reprinted Mahabodhi, Vol. 45, no. 7, July 1937, pp. 303-317.
  35. The age of colossal dagabas. Buddhist, (Colombo), Vol. 7, no. 11, March 1937, pp. 473-476.
  36. Examples of Andhra art recently found in Ceylon. Annual Bibliography of Indian Archaeology for the year 1936, (Leiden), Vol.  11, 1938, pp. 15-18.
  37. Anuradhapura, the city. Buddhist, (Colombo), Vol. 1, May 1938, pp. 10-12.
  38. The archaeological interest of Ceylon. Ceylon Tourist and Trade Journal, (Colombo), Vol. 3, no. 1, Apr. 1938, pp. 52-55, 2 illus.
  39. The graffiti of Sigiriya. Annual Bibliography of Indian Archaeology, for the year 1937, Leiden, Vol. 12, 1939, pp. 34-37.
  40. The history of inscriptions in Ceylon. Buddhist, (Colombo), Vol. 9, no. 6, Oct. 1938, pp. 96-99.
  41. Sigiriya graffiti: earliest extant specimens of Sinhalese verse. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch), Vol. 34, no. 92, 1939, pp.309-346.
  42. Polonnaruva. Mahabodhi, (Calcutta), Vol. 47, 1939, pp. 523-534.
  43. Tamil householder’s terrace, Anuradhapura.  Annual Bibliography of Indian Archaeology for the year 1938, (Leiden), Vol. 13, 1940, pp.13-14, reprinted in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch), Vol. 35, no. 93, 1940, pp.54-56.
  44. Archaeological summary 1940. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch), Vol. 35, no.94, 1941, Certains offrent des jeux gratuits aux joueurs. pp. 65-68.
  45. Art of ancient Ceylon. New Review, (Culcutta), Vol. 14, 1941,  pp. 185-95.
  46. Archaeological summary 1941. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch), Vol. 35, no. 96, 1943, pp. 187-188.
  47. A Nagari legend on some mediaeval Sinhalese coins. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch), Vol. 35, no. 96, 1943, pp. 162-163.
  48. Archaeological summary 1943. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch), Vol. 36, no. 97, 1944, pp. 236-237.
  49. Magul Uyana (Royal Park) of ancient Anuradhapura.  Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch), Vol. 36, no. 97, 1944, pp. 193-209, 3 pl.
  50. Nagapatam and Theravada Buddhism in South India. Journal of the Greater India Society, (Calcutta), Vol. 11, no. 1, January 1944, pp. 17-25.
  51. Gedige.  Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch), Vol. 36, no. 99, 1945, pp. 126-129.
  52. The Padakada Sannasa, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch), Vol. 36, no. 99, 1945, pp. 130-133
  53. Archaeological summary 1944. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch), Vol. 36, no. 98, 1945, pp. 93-94.
  54. Brahmi Inscriptions in Sinhalese verse.  Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch), Vol. 36, no. 98, 1945, pp. 58-66
  55. Recent archaeological finds at Ruvanvali Dagaba.  Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch), Vol. 37, no. 101, 1946, pp. 3-7, 3pl.
  56. Archaeological summary 1945. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch), Vol. 37, no. 101, 1946, pp. 43-44.
  57. Perhaps the greatest archaeological find in Ceylon: a unique ivory statuette and exquisite gold reliquaries. Illustrated London News, Vol. 210, no. 5621, Jan.11, 1947, pp. 52-53, illus.
  58. An ancient sanctuary newly revealed: discoveries and reconstructions in the Ceylon Jungle. Illustrated London News, Vol. 212, no. 5696,  June 19, 1948, pp. 698-700, 12 illus.
  59. Upulvan Shrine at Devinuvara.  Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch), Vol. 38, no. 106, 1948, pp. 37-41, 2 pl.
  60. Archaeological summary 1948. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch), Vol. 38, no. 107,  1949, pp. 140-142.
  61. Archaeological summary 1949. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch), N.S., Vol. 1., (Centenary volume, 1845-1945), 1950, pp. 195-197
  62. Sigiri the abode of a God-king.  . Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch), N.S., Vol. 1., (Centenary volume, 1845-1945), 1950, pp. 129-183
  63. The Bodhi tree. Buddhist, (Colombo), N.S., Vol. 21, no. 7, November 1950, p.97 cotd. 107.
  64. Buddhist Mission to Burma. Buddhist, (Colombo), N.S., Vol. 21, no. 5, 1950, pp. 80-81.
  65. Dakkhina Thupa, Anuradhapura Buddhist, (Colombo), N.S., Vol. 21, no. 1, May 1950, pp. 4-9, (reprinted from Archaeological Survey of Ceylon – Annual Report 1948, 8-16)
  66. Sinhalese Art and Culture. Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, (London), Vol. 98, no. 4822, 2 June 1950, pp. 588-605, reprinted Souvenir catalogue of the International Exhibition of Paintings , Colombo Plan Exhibition, 1952, pp.  9-21, 6 illus.
  67. Recent archaeological finds at Ruvanvali Dagaba (Mahatupa) . Annual Bibliography of Indian Archaeology for the year 1940-1947, (Leiden), Vol. 15, [1950], xlii-xlv, 1 pl.
  68. The word navakarmi in the Kanishka casket inscription, Indian Culture, (Calcutta), Vol. 15, 1950, pp. 229-233.
  69. The dagaba newly discovered at Mihintale. Buddhist, (Colombo), N.S., Vol. 22, no. 2, June 1951, pp. 18-20
  70. Archaeological summary 1950. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch), N.S., Vol. 2, pt.1, 1952, pp. 55-60.
  71. Les Fetes bouddhiques a Ceylan, trad, de l’anglais par S. Karpeles. France Asie: revue Mensuelle de culture et de synthese, (Saigon), Vol. 8, no.71, April 1952, pp. 49-54; Vol. 8, no.72, May 1952, pp. 124-129 (reprint of the article Buddhist Festivals in Ceylon in  Buddhistic Studies )
  72. Les vestiges des cites antiques. La Revue Francaise de l’elite Europeenne, (Paris), Vol. 4, no. 38, 1952, pp. 55-59, 9 illus
  73. Unique bronzes found at Mahiyangana. Ceylon Today, (Colombo) Vol.  1, no. 1, Sept. 1952, pp. 14-17, 3 illus.
  74. Statue at Potgul Vehera, Polonnaruva.  Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch), N.S., Vol. 2, pt. 2, 1952, pp. 123-125
  75. The statue near Potgul Vehera at Polonnaruva, Ceylon. Artibus Asiae, (Ascona, Switzerland), Vol. 15, no. 3, 1952, pp. 209-217, 2 pl. 2 text illus.
  76. Archaeological summary 1951.  Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society(Ceylon Branch), N.S., Vol. 3, pt.1, June 1953, pp. 85-90.
  77. The Chakravala. Ceylon Today; 2 (2), Feb 1953, pp. 7-10, 3 illus.
  78. The sculpture of man and horse near Tissavava at Anuradhapura Ceylon.  Artibus Asiae, (Ascona, Switzerland), Vol. 16, no. 3, 1953, pp.167-190, 5 illus.
  79. The significance of Sinhalese moonstones. Artibus Asiae, (Ascona, Switzerland), Vol. 17, nos. 3 & 4, 1954, pp. 197-231, illus.
  80. A royal paradise of ancient Ceylon…. a Xanadu of 1500 years ago, revealed beside the lion rock of Sigiri. illustrated London News, Vol. 224, no. 5998, Apr. 3, 1954, pp. 530-32, 7 illus.
  81. Archaeological summary 1952.  Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch), N.S., Vol. 4, pt.1, May 1955, pp. 82-88.
  82. Archaeological summary 1953.  Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch), N.S., Vol. 4, pt.1, May 1955, pp. 89-92.
  83. The Bodhi Ghara of Nitolava. Buddhist, (Colombo) N.S. Vol. 26, no. 1, May 1955, pp. 29-30.
  84. Ceylon Bo – Shrine. Ceylon Today, (Colombo), Vol.  4, nos. 5 & 6, May-June, 1955, pp. 20-24, 5 illus.
  85. The rock cut image of Avukana. Ceylon Today, (Colombo), Vol. 4, no. 9, Sept. 1955, pp. 20-21, illus.
  86. Samkha and Padma.  Artibus Asiae, (Ascona, Switzerland), Vol. 18, no. 2, 1955, pp. 121-27, 2 illus.
  87. Archaeological investigations near Pomparippu. Ceylon Today (Colombo), Vol.5, no. 11, November 1956, pp. 13-15, 8 illus.
  88. The Panakaduva Copper plate of Vijayabahu I. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society Great Britain and Ireland, 1957, pp.213-214
  89. A bas- relief of at “Isurumuni”, Anuradhapura. Artibus Asiae, (Ascona, Switzerland), Vol. 19, nos. 3 & 4, 1957, pp. 335-341, 2 pl.
  90. Religious ties between Ceylon and Burma. Buddhist, (Colombo), N.S., Vol. 28, no.4, August 1957, pp.137-139.
  91. Was there a Gonisa-vihara in ancient Ceylon? University of Ceylon Review, (Peradeniya), Vol. 15, nos. 3 & 4, July-Oct. 1957, pp.127-133
  92. Shrine of art crowning the Lion’s rock. Unesco Courier, (Paris), Vol. 10, no. 12, Dec. 1957, pp. 24-29, Col. pl. 8 illus.
  93. Archaeological discoveries in Ceylon, 1948-1953. Annual Bibliography of Indian Archaeology, for the year 1948-1953,  (Leiden), Vol. 16, 1958, pp. lv-lviii, 1 pl.
  94. Sanskrit in Ceylon epigraphy.  Bharati:  Annual of the Indological Society, University of Ceylon, Peradeniya, 1957-58, pp. 3-7
  95. Mahinda day. University Buddhist Annual: the magazine of the Ceylon University Buddhist Brotherhood, Vol.8, 1957-1958, pp. 8-10
  96. Padalanchana at Anuradhapura. University of Ceylon Review, (Peredeniya), Vol. 16, nos. 1 & 2, Jan-Apr. 1958, pp. 56-61.
  97. Hindagala Rock Inscription, University of Ceylon Review, (Peradeniya), Vol. 16, nos. 1 & 2,  Jan-Apr, 1958, pp. 1-5, pl.
  98. The ancient names and builders of the Padaviya and Naccaduva tanks. University of Ceylon Review, (Peradeniya), Vol. 16, nos. 3 & 4, July – Oct 1958, pp.70-77
  99. Perimayankulam Rock inscription Vasaba. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch), N.S., Vol.5, pt. 2, 1958, pp.129-137, pl.
  100. Some regulations concerning village irrigation works in ancient Ceylon. Ceylon Journal of Historical and Social Sciences, (Peradeniya), Vol. 1, no. 1, January 1958, pp.1-7.
  101. Mahayanism in Ceylon. Presense du Bouddhisme.  France Asie, (Saigon), Vol. 15, nos.153-157, February – June, 1959, pp. 515-527, illus.
  102. A Sinhalese hero-stone. Artibus Asiae, (Ascona, Switzerland), Vol.22, nos. 1-2, 1959, pp. 153-158, 1 pl.
  103. Lankatilake Inscription, University of Ceylon Review, (Peradeniya), Vol. 18, nos. 1 & 2, Jan-Apr, 1960, pp.1-45, 2 pl.
  104. The University History of Ceylon. Ceylon Today, (Colombo), Vol. 9, no. 9, Sept. 1960, pp. 1-5, 9.
  105. New light on the Buddhist era in Ceylon and early Sinhalese Chronology. University of Ceylon Review, (Peradeniya), Vol. 18, nos. 3 & 4, July – Oct. 1960, pp. 129 – 156, 1 pl.
  106. Ceylon and Malaysia in mediaeval times. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch), N.S., Vol.7, pt. 1, 1960, pp.1-42.
  107. The Emperor of Ceylon at the time of arrival of the Portuguese in 1505. University of Ceylon Review, (Peradeniya), Vol. 19, no. 1, April 1961, pp. 10-29.
  108. The Gramani (Gamaini) in Ancient India. Ceylon Historical Journal, (Dehiwala), Vol. 10, nos. 1 & 4, July 1960-April 1961, pp. 1-7
  109. Rock inscriptions at Timbiriweva and Andaragollava in the Vilpattu Sanctuary. University of Ceylon Review, (Peradeniya), Vol. 19, no. 2, Oct 1961, pp.95-104, 2 pl.
  110. The Aryan kingdom in North Ceylon.  Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch), N.S., Vol. 7, no. 2,  1961, pp. 174-224
  111. Significance of the painting of Sigiri. Artibus Asiae, (Ascona, Switzerland), Vol. 24, nos. 3 & 4, 1961, Felicitation volume presented to Professor George Coedes on the occasion of his seventy-fifth birthday, Special Number edited by A.B. Griswold and Jean Boisselier, pp. 382-87.
  112. Notes on the Tamil inscription from Paduvasnuwara, University of Ceylon Review, (Peradeniya), Vol. 20, no. 1, Apr 1962, pp.16-18.
  113. An inscription on circa 200 BC at Rajagala commemorating Saint- Mahinda. University of Ceylon Review, (Peradeniya), Vol. 20, no. 2, Oct 1962, pp.159-162.
  114. Some Sinhalese inscriptions of circa sixth century. University of Ceylon Review, (Peradeniya), Vol. 20, no. 1, 1962, pp. 1-11, 2pl.
  115. Mahanama, the author of Mahavamsa. University of Ceylon Review, (Peradeniya), Vol. 20, no. 2, Oct. 1962: pp. 269-286.
  116. Rummindei  pillar inscription. Journal of the American Oriental Society, (Washington), Vol. 82, no.2, April- June 1962, pp. 163-167.
  117. A scholar of rare attainments. [The Ven. Weliwitiye Sorata Nayaka Thera], Ceylon Today, (Colombo), Vol. 12, no.8, August 1963, pp. 22-23.
  118. Ceylon and Malaysia: a rejoinder to Nilakanta Sastri. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch), N.S., Vol. 8, pt. 2, 1963, pp. 330-377.
  119. A Sanskrit Inscription from Padaviya.  Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch), N.S., Vol. 8, pt. 2, 1963, pp.262-264
  120. Princess Ulakudaya’s Wedding. University of Ceylon Review, (Peradeniya), Vol. 21, no. 2, Oct. 1963, pp. 103-138, 3 pl., fold chart
  121. Linguistic studies in ancient Ceylon and Sri Vijaya. Transactions of the University of Ceylon Linguistic Society, (Peradeniya), 1964, pp. 79-100.
  122. Two cults of Buddhist mariners. Navy Wesak Thoughts, edited by A.G. Devendra, A Ceylon Navy Buddhist Association publication, 1964, 3 pp.
  123. The interpretation of the old Sinhalese word Vaharala. Journal of the American Oriental Society, (Washington), Vol. 87, no. 2, Apr-June 1967, pp. 166-169.
  124. Newly discovered historical documents relating to Ceylon, India and South East Asia.  Buddhist Yearly, 1967, Jahrbuch fur Buddhistische Forschungen, [Buddhist Centre, Halle], pp. 26-58.
  125. Two decades of Archaeological work in Ceylon. Ceylon Today, (Colombo) Vol. 17, nos. 2 & 4, Feb- March, April, 1968, pp. 64-75,11 illus.
  126. Two Buddhist historians. Maha Bodhi, (Calcutta), Vol. 76, nos. 5-6, May- June, 1968, pp. 96-99
  127. A Greek prince who was a Buddhist Missionary. Maha Bodhi, (Calcutta), Vol. 77, nos. 4-5, April-May, 1969, pp. 122-124
  128. Medirigiriya: the rediscovery of an architectural gem. Times of Ceylon Annual, 1969,( 7 p. ) illus. some colour.
  129. Dambulla in ancient times, Vesak Number , [Colombo, Dept. of Cultural Affairs], [no 2], 1969. pp. 65-69
  130. Some dues from lands in ancient Ceylon, Ceylon Historical Journal, (Dehiwala), Vol. 19, nos. 1-4, 1969-70, pp. 62-64.
  131. Buddhist art in Ceylon. Daham Suwanda: Vesak Number, Colombo, Department of Cultural Affairs, 1970, pp. 5-11.
  132. The designer of Barabudur. Maha Bodhi, (Calcutta), Vol. 78, nos. 5 & 6, May-June 1970, pp. 165-168.
  133. Stepping stones in the migration of the Indus script to Easter Island. Ceylon Today, (Colombo), Vol. 19, nos. 7 & 8, July- Aug.1970, pp. 27-32.
  134. Tow fragmentary inscriptions from Kalani. Puravedi Bulletin of the Dept. of Archaeology;  Vidyodaya University of Ceylon. No 1, March 1971, pp. 4-20
  135. The Dhvanikarikas in fifteenth century Ceylon.  Journal of the American Oriental Society, (Washington) Vol. 94, Jan. 1974, pp. 131-133

 

 Articles published in other publications

lankave Rajput Janaya. Bharatiya Anusheelan Grantha: MM Gaurishankar Ojha Commemoration Volume,  Allahabad, 1934, pp. 64-69.

The subject of Sigiri paintings.  India antiquea volume of oriental studies, presented by his friends and pupils to Jean Philippe Vogel on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of his doctorate;  Leyden, Kern Institute, [EJ Brill printer] 1947, pp. 264-269.

The progress of archaeological work in Ceylon. United National Party Souvenir of the visit of Elizabeth II, Queen of Ceylon, Apr. 1954; comp. by Titus W. Perera. Colombo, UNP Journals, 1954. pp. 109-115, 3 illus.

Some aspects of the divinity of the King in ancient India and Ceylon. Proceedings and Transactions of the All- India Oriental Conference, 16th Session, University of Lucknow, October 1951, Vol. 2 (selected papers), Lucknow, 1955, Section VIII, no.28, pp. 217-232.

Glimpses of the political and social conditions of mediaeval  Ceylon. Sir Paul E. Pieris Felicitation Volume, 1956, pp. 69-74.

Ceylon and Sri Vijaya. Essays offered to G.H. Luce…. In honour of his 75th birthday; ed. By Ba Shin and others, Ascona, Artibus Asiae, 1967. Vol.1, pp. 205-212.

Roruka: was it Mohenjodara ?. Studies in Asian History, Proceedings of the Asian History Congress, 1961, edited by K.S. Lal, New Delhi, Asia Publishing House, 1969, pp. 111-116.

Ploughing  ritual or royal consecration in ancient Ceylon. R.C. Majumdar Felicitation volume;  ed. by HB Sarkar, Calcutta, K.L. Mukhopadhyay, 1970, 9p.

Venerable Bambarende Siri Sivali: the historian of Buddhist Culture, Siri Sivali Felicitation Volume; Kelaniya, Empire Press, 1972, pp.229-230

The authorship and date of the commentary to the Dhammapada.  Souvenir of the 10th General Conference of the World Fellowship of Buddhists, Colombo, May 23rd -27th, 1972, [Colombo, 1972], pp.19-21

 

Obituary Notices

Arthur Maurice Hocart [obituary notice]. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch), Vol. 34, no. 91, 1938, pp. 264-268.

Humphrey William Codrington  [obituary notice]. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch), Vol. 36, no.98, 1945, pp. 55-57.

Cyril Wace Nicholas. [obituary notice]. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch), N.S., Vol. 7, pt. 2, 1961, pp.258-260

Reports

Report on a Pali document in Cambodian characters found in the Malvatte Vihare Kandy. Historical Manuscript Commission; 2 nd Report, (Sessional Paper 21- 1935, ) Appendix 9, pp. 58-61

Ceylon. Dept. of Archaeology, Archaeological Survey of Ceylon. Annual  Report of the Archaeological Commissioner, Colombo, Ceylon Government Press.

As acting Archaeological Commissioner;

Annual report, 1931-32, 11p., 8 pl.

Annual report, 1933, 20p., 7 pl.

Annual report, 1934, 23p., 15 pl.

As Archaeological Commissioner (1940 – 1955)

Annual report, 1940-45, 41p., 14 pl.

Annual report, 1946, 18p., 9 pl.

Annual report, 1947, 17p., 8 pl.

Annual report, 1948, 25p., 15 pl.

Annual report, 1950, 34p., 7 pl.

Annual report, 1951, 65p., 15 pl.

Annual report, 1952, 43p., 13 pl.

Annual report, 1953, 28p., 9 pl.

Annual report, 1954, 39p., 15 pl.

Annual report, 1955, 36p., 7 pl.

Publication on Senerath Paranavitana, Commeration Volumes, Felicitation Volumes, Bibliographies

Senerat Paranavitana Commemoration Volume, ed. By Leelananda Prematilleke, Karthigesu Indrapala and J.E. Van Lohuizen-de Leeuw. Leiden, E.J. Brill, 1978, xi, 300p., front. (port.) 15 pl., 58 text illus. (Studies on South Asian Culture, Vol. VII)

Paranavitana Felicitation volume on art and architecture and oriental studies, presented to Prof. Senarat Paranavitana, Archealogist, Epigraphist, Historian as a tribute of his colleagues, friends, well wishers to a life-time spent in interpreting the culture of the corner of Asia, Colombo. MD Gunasena, 1965. [8] 353 p., front (port. )55 Pl.

Paranavitana, Senarath. The Library of the late Prof. Senarat Paranavitana. Colombo, Public Trustee Office, [1973]. 82 p. (Mimeographed text) A listing of random of the 1217 items in the famous scholar’s library, left to the Public Trustee for disposal on his death in October 1972. The library was sold in 1974 to the Jaffna Archaeological Society for Rs. 35,000/- and is now housed in the Jaffna Campus Library at Thirunelvely.

 

(This bibliography was prepared by Sandamali Wijenayake(Assistant Librarian – Sri Lanka Parliament) using  ‘A Bibliography of Ceylon’ by H.A.I. Goonetileke, Vol. 1-5, Zug Switzerland, Inter Documentation Company AG, 1970- (Bibliotheca Asiatica series volumes) and the Bibliography appeared in the Senaratha Paranavitana Commemoration volume edited by S. Paranavitana, Leelananda Prematilleka and Johanna Engelberta van Lohuizen- de Leeuw, Brill, 1978)[/fusion_builder_column][/fusion_builder_row][/fusion_builder_container]

Public Lecturer – POWER OF CURATING: Making Museums Come Alive

POWER OF CURATING: Making Museums Come Alive
AMERICAN CENTER HOSTS A PUBLIC LECTURE
POWER OF CURATING
Making Museums Come Alive
Speaker: Karen Lee
Smithsonian Curator
Wednesday 2013 July 24 3:00 pm
National Museum
Sir Marcus Fernando Mawatha Colombo 07

Karen Lee is a curator from the Smithsonian, the world’s largest museum and research complex based in Washington, D.C.

She teaches in Asia and Europe and is a highly-valued facilitator devoted to helping museum staff find creative solutions to daunting challenges. A believer in educational outreach and collaboration. Lee couriered a rare American coin on a seven country European tour in 2012. This special project attracted more than 10 million viewers online, in person and through other media.

Karen M. Lee has a Master’s Degree in Museum Studies undergraduate degree in Biology.

Please confirm your participation on or before July 24, 2013
Tel: 011-2498106, or 011-242463 Email: amcentersl@state.gov

The American Center Colombo

See Also

Ms Karen Lee
Numismatic Curator
National Museum of American History

January 1995– Present (18 years 7 months)Washington, D.C.

Curator specializing in American and Russian coinage and numismatic art. Expertise includes exhibition planning, international collaborations, collections research and digitization. Intnernationally recognized in visitor evaluation and learning in museums. Author of “The Private Sketchbook of George T. Morgan”. Adjunct faculty, National Council of Science Museums, Kolkata India. Member of the International Community of  Museums (ICOM) and international speaker.

Call for Papers – International Conference on Asian Art, Culture and Heritage Colombo, Sri Lanka 21st-23rd August 2013

Important Dates

Date
Submission of Abstracts April 20, 2013
Acceptance of Abstracts May 10, 2013
Submission of Full Papers June 15, 2013
Conference August 21-23 2013

The Centre for Asian Studies of the University of Kelaniya is pleased to announce the “International Conference on Asian Art, Culture and Heritage” organized in collaboration with the International Association for Asian Heritage (IAAH) and the Ministry of Culture and the Arts  which will be held from 21st to 23rd of August 2013 at the Sri Lanka Foundation Institute, Colombo , Sri Lanka. All interested academics are invited hereby to submit the abstracts of their research papers on or before 20th April 2013 on the following themes to be considered for presentation at the conference.

1′         Recent studies in Archaeology

2.         New perspectives in History

3.         Trends in Heritage Management, Museology and Tourism

4.         Critical studies in Religion, Language and Literature

5.         Aspects on Arts, Culture and Society

The abstracts should be between 250-500 words in font size 12 Times New Roman and should contain the title of the paper, name of the author, the text and a few Keywords. A brief CV not exceeding one page including educational qualifications and institutional affiliations should also be sent along with the abstract.

Abstracts and all other correspondence should be channelled through iaahlanka@yahoo.com which is exclusive for this conference.  Acceptance of abstracts will be notified case by case till 10th May 2013. Full papers of the accepted abstracts are required on or before 15st June to be considered for publishing.

Registration:

All participants should be registered before attending the conference by paying the registration fee according to the category they belong to. Registration fee includes the conference kit, food and beverages during the conference.

Sri Lankan South Asians  Non- South Asians
Students Rs. 500 $ 20 $ 30
IAAH Members Rs. 1000 $ 50 $ 100
Others Rs. 2500 $ 100 $ 150

 

Accommodation:

Basic accommodation will be provided for foreign students and IAAH members.  Request for accommodation for other participants may be considered according to the availability of hostel facilities at the Sri Lanka Foundation where the conference will be held. Accommodation will be arranged on first come first served basis and therefore payment of the registration fee at the earliest is encouraged to secure accommodation.

 

Post Conference Tour:

All foreign Participants are invited to attend the Post Conference Tour to the historic city of Galle on

the final day of the conference. The Galle Fort is the best preserved Dutch Fort in Asia and a good example of living heritage site in the country. An additional fee of $15 from students and $30 from others will be charged for the tour.

Anura Manatunga,

Director/ Centre for Asian Studies,

University of Kelaniya,

Sri Lanka.

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“Samudrika” Maritime Archaeology Symposium & Exhibition

Maritime Archaeological Unit & Maritime Archaeological Museum, Galle Project, Central Cultural Fund is organizing a symposium & exhibition to mark the third anniversary of re-establishment after the Tsunami of the Maritime Archaeology Museum, Galle.

Date: 20 th 21st of March 2013  From 09:00 – 17:00
Venue: Premises of the MAM, Fort, Galle

 

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“Samudrika” – Maritime Archaeology Museum, Galle

The theme of the exhibition and symposium is  Maritime Archaeology and Traditional Fishing

industry in Southern Province.

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Settlement Patterns of the Malvatu Oya and Kala Oya Basins

Book Launch

Dr. Vidanapathirana’s investigation of he relict cutural landscape of the two key river basins of the Malvatu Oya and Kala Oya has the distinction of being a pioneering study and the first book in the relatively neglected field of Sri Lanka’s historical geography. It places archaeological remains, inscriptional records, historical documentation and ethnographic data in the geographical contexts of such

factors as topography, soil, climate, vegetation and drainage.

The book will be launched at PGIAR Auditorium, 407, Bauddhaloka Mawatha, Colombo 07 on March 22, 2013 at 4.00 p.m.

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Invitation - Dr. Vidanapathirana - Settlement Patterns of the Malvatu Oya and Kala Oya Basins

Invitation – Dr. Vidanapathirana – Settlement Patterns of the Malvatu Oya and Kala Oya Basins

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Surgery in an ancient kingdom

This article was originally published on The Sundaytimes paper on October 30, 2011.

Kumudini Hettiarachchi reports, Pix by M.A. Pushpa Kumara

The most recent “surgical” first in Sri Lanka to hit the headlines is a liver transplant from a live donor just weeks ago. Skilled surgeons, modern technology and well-equipped hospitals are prerequisites to perform complex surgery in this advanced 21st century.

Veteran archaeologist Prof. Leelananda Prematilleke, however, leaves the modern behind and takes a walk down the corridors of time to 12th Century Polonnaruwa. Not only was there a fully-functional hospital but it also had both medical equipment and surgical instruments over 800 years ago.

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The 12th century hospital at Polonnaruwa

The 12th century hospital at Polonnaruwa

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Prof. Leelananda Prematilleke

Prof. Leelananda Prematilleke

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Prof Arjuna Aluvihare

Prof Arjuna Aluvihare

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The micro- balance and its box: Could be the smallest of its kind in the world

The micro- balance and its box: Could be the smallest of its kind in the world

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scale-2

Forceps with long handle

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Scalpel with wooden handle

buy viagra soft tabs Scalpel with wooden handle

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Scissors with thick metal handle

Scissors with thick metal handle

Beheth-oruva

Beheth-oruva

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A well-preserved spoon

A well-preserved spoon

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Attached toilets and baths at the hospital

Attached toilets and baths at the hospital

“The finds at Polonnaruwa are unique,” says Prof. Prematilleke, for it is the only hospital site from around the world in archaeological terms that a number of surgical instruments have been unearthed in addition to medical equipment.

When the Sunday Times meets Octagenarian Prof. Prematilleke, formerly Head of the Department of Archaeology of the Peradeniya University and Founder-President of the Sri Lanka Council of Archaeologists, the memories flow back to excavations by his students under his guidance in Polonnaruwa in 1981.

Read more

PDF version of this article can be downloaded from Surgery in an ancient kingdom

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Moonstone advertised for auction at the Bonhams auction in London, United Kingdom – The study report

The study report was done by the Mr. Wijerathne Bohingamuwa, DPhil/PhD Research Student School of Archaeology, University of Oxford. Some extracts from the report is given below and you can download the report from following link.

report_download

low price propecia
archaeology.lk like to take this opportunity thank Mr. Wijerathne Bohingamuwa for his time and commitment for prepare this report.

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Front Cover - The Moonstone for sale at the Bonham Auction in London - The Study Report

Front Cover – The Moonstone for sale at the Bonham Auction in London – The Study Report

Some extracts are given below.

1. Back ground

Publication of a web advertisement by the London based antiquity auctioneers Bonhams on January 10th 2013 under the title of “Rare Buddhist Anuradhapura period (377 BC – 1017 AD) Indian carved stone temple step discovered by Bonhams in a Devon garden will be sold in London” created a considerable public and media interest in Sri Lanka. Not surprisingly so as the artefact claimed to have originated from the Buddhist heritage of the island. The general demand by the public, media and even some reputed scholars of archaeology and art history was to take measures for the return of the artefact to Sri Lanka. The Archaeological Survey of Sri Lanka, rightfully, decided to verify the authenticity and if possible to establish the provenance of the artefact by physical examination and research as a prerequisite for initiating the necessary course of action. Hence the author was formally appointed to undertake this task on behalf of the Director General of Archaeology, Sri Lanka. Here is the resultant study report.

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Moonstone advertised for auction at the Bonhams auction in London, United Kingdom

Moonstone advertised for auction at the Bonhams auction in London, United Kingdom

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Moonstone - Sadakada Pahana - Anuradhapura- Near Thuparamaya

Moonstone – Sadakada Pahana – Anuradhapura- Near Thuparamaya

Moonstone - Sadakada Pahana - Anuradhapura- Near Thuparamaya - 02 Moonstone - Sadakada Pahana - Anuradhapura- Near Thuparamaya - 03 Moonstone - Sadakada Pahana - Anuradhapura- Near Thuparamaya - 04 Moonstone - Sadakada Pahana - Anuradhapura- Near Thuparamaya - 05

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Comparison of moonstones in Anuradhapura and London

Comparison of moonstones in Anuradhapura and London

3.1 Description of the moonstone

The MBAL measures 146 cm (along the straight edge of the half lotus side) X 123 cm (at the longest point from the half lotus end to the semi-circular edge). Thickness of the moonstone varies from 14 cm in the semi-circular end to 18 cm in the centre of the half lotus end of the moonstone. The author could not, obviously, weigh the object and it is reported to weigh three quarters of a ton5. The artefact is perfectly preserved (discussed below) except for the slight damage to the tusk of the last elephant in the southern most end of the animal procession panel. Effects of fungi growth, however, is clearly visible on the carved surface where as the opposite side is rather fresh.

4. Possible conclusions

Establishing the provenance and authenticity of artefacts detached from their contexts without any record is a challenging task. This is particularly true for artefacts in antiquity market as the auctioneers purposely mask the provenance and true history of the artefact. Moonstone in Bonhams auction in London (MBAL) is no exception. If Bonhams’ account is accepted, MBAL is a genuine piece of art and it belongs to the Anuradhapura period of Sri Lankan history. However its history cannot be traced beyond 1950. Though some scholars have traced the genesis of Sri Lankan moonstone to India, developed forms of moonstone as seen in the island are a unique creative work of Sri Lankan Art and Architecture. The MBAL artistically and thematically resembles late Anurdhapura period moonstones, specifically the moonstone number 10 (in Anuradhapura) of Godakumbure’s publication 1967 (MNG10). While there are number of similarities between MBAL and MNG10, there are more important marked differences as well. In short, MNG10 and other known moonstones in Anuradhapura are of very fine quality and details of the carvings are superior. Craftsmen have given more consideration to finer details of carvings since they had a message to convey and less attention to getting fine edges. The thickness of the stone slabs of Anuradhapura genuine moonstones seems much thinner than that of MBAL. The MBAL shows some evidence of weathering. However considering the antiquity assigned to the artefact and the distance it is claimed to have travelled it may be expected to have born more evidence of wear and tear. Perfect preservation of artefacts under favourable circumstances is possible. However when an artefact weighing three quarters of a ton
travels over thousands of miles and moves over six times from place to place, it would be expected to witness the evidence of such journey. Such evidence is meagre in the MBAL. Under these circumstances the antiquity and the authenticity assigned to the artefact, naturally, comes under the radar of suspicion. The absence sufficient data – statistical, descriptive and photographic details as well as scientific evidence of material/rock types
used for making moonstones- of moonstones in the Island and that of the one in London makes it difficult come to a definite conclusion about the authenticity of MBAL. However the likelihood of MBAL being a replica of a genuine moonstone of Anuradhapura period is quite high. Nevertheless this does not mean to completely reject the claim that the MBAL is an original Sri Lankan moonstone.

Local geologists, archaeologists with scientific background and geo-archaeologists tend to conclude that the material used for this artefact is granitic gneiss (high-grade metamorphic rock) commonly found in the North Central Province in Sri Lanka. Does this support the authenticity of the moonstone or the possibility of the replica, if it is the case, was made in Sri Lanka itself? Further research is needed, in my view, to answer these issues.

5. Some recommendations

1. While our preliminary investigations seem to suggest a high possibility of the moonstone in London (MBAL) being a replica of a genuine Anuradhapura period moonstone, probably of the number 10 moonstone in Godakumbure’s 1967 publication (MNG 10) or a similar one, it is exceedingly advisable to undertake further research, inclusive of the scientific analysis of the material, on the moonstones of Sri Lanka and that of MBAL before reaching a final decision. Present study should be considered as a preliminary investigation upon which further research should be based. Data collected by such research may be evaluated by a national committee of experts for reaching at a final decision.

2. Unavailability of sufficient data on moonstones in Sri Lanka is a serious hindrance in this regard. It is highly desirable and timely that concerted efforts be made to collect all possible data including scientific evidence on the material used for moonstones and such data should be compared with that of MBAL.

3. Our consultation to determine the material/rock type used for the MBAL lead to two different views: local experts concluding it to be granitic gneiss while Oxford expert deciding it to be granite or micro granite. This issue may be resolved by petrological studies of the rock sample or examination of the moonstone by a geologists/geo-archaeologist. It is desirable to compare such data with those of the moonstones in Sri Lanka, particularly from

Anuradhapura region.

4. In dealing with the antiquity market not only the national and international laws and conventions such as 1970 “UNESCO convention on the means of prohibiting and preventing the illicit import, export and transfer of ownership of cultural property” to which both Sri Lanka and United Kingdom are signatories should be considered, but also the professional ethics largely agreed by professional and academic bodies of Archaeology and Museums should be given due consideration.

5. The officials in the Division dealing with the (illegal) export of artefacts and related matters at the Department of Archaeology should be enlightened in (the local antiquity laws which they are obviously conversant with) all international conventions on heritage to which Sri Lanka is signatory. More over it is necessary to know the antiquity laws and international conventions signed by countries with which they will have to deal in relation to heritage issues and antiquity markets. Knowledge of the professional ethics generally agreed by the archaeological bodies and museums is extremely handy in such efforts.

6. Sri Lankan missions in overseas should be

updated with the information discussed in number 5. Such information helps them in taking prompt and efficient actions with regards to Sri Lankan heritage objects in the country they are stationed.

6. Beyond viagra femele the issue of moonstone in London 

1. It is highly enviable to take this opportunity to reflect on Sri Lanka’s antiquity laws, the national policies and priorities concerning the heritage in the island. As it is clear from the issue of the moonstone, the island lacks a satisfactory inventory of archaeological sites, monuments and artefacts. This is particularly true for the areas recently liberated. Limited resources available to the Department Archaeology make this task extremely difficult.

However strenuous and collective efforts should be made to survey the island and inventorying sites, monuments and artefacts, by mobilizing resources available in other relevant institutions particularly those in the archaeology departments in universities and the large number of graduates graduating from these universities annually. Considering the rapid development projects that are underway in Sri Lanka after the war, making such an inventory and a national data base a prime importance.

2. Decisions on national heritage issues such as the moonstone in London advertised for auction should be firmly based only on the antiquity laws of the island and international conventions to which Sri Lanka is signatory and professional principles and ethics universally agreed.

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Preliminary assessment of an early historic (2000 year old) shipwreck at Godawaya, Sri Lanka

This article was first published in the “Bulletin of the Australasian Institute for Maritime Archaeology (2011), 35: 9–17″.  Published in archaeology.lk with the permission from  R. Muthucumarana

A.S. Gaur1, R. Muthucumarana2, W.M. Chandraratne2, B.C. Orillandeda3, M. Manders4, S. Karunarathna2, P. Weerasinghe2,
A.M.A. Dayananda2, T. Zainab5, A. Sudaryadi6, K.A.B.A. Ghani7, J. Wahjudin6, N. Samaraweera2.
1. National Institute of Oceanography (CSIR), Dona Paula Goa, India. Email:
2. Maritime Archaeology Unit, Central Cultural Fund, Fort, Gale, Sri Lanka.
3. Underwater Archaeology National Museum of the Philippines, P. Burgos Street. Manila 1000, Philippines.
4. Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed Smallepad 5, 3811 MG Amersfoort, The Netherlands.
5. Directorate of Coastal and Marine Affairs, Mina Bahari II Building, 7th Floor Jl. Medan Merdeka Timur No. 16, Jakarta-
Indonesia 10110.
6. Archaeology and History, JI. Letnan Jidun (Komplks Perkantoran, Serang, Banten 42115, Box Office 204, Indonesia.
7. Conservation and Archaeology Division, Level 1, Chulan Tower, Jalan Colony, 50450 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

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Figure 1. Map showing the location of the Godawaya shipwreck site

Figure 1. Map showing the location of the Godawaya shipwreck site

Introduction

An international team comprised of experts in diving and underwater archaeology from Sri Lanka, India, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines participated in the assessment of a shipwreck at Godawaya, Sri Lanka. The main objective of the exploration was to make assessment of the wreck site based on the data generated during the fieldwork. The shipwreck is lying or trapped in an isolated reef (which virtually surrounded the wreck and only the northeastern part is exposed) in 31 m water depth. The observation of surface distribution suggests that the site is spread over an area of 40 m by 22 m. The important findings include various sizes of jars, carinated cooking vessels, quern stones and unidentified cargo and possible ship structure. The analysis of pottery retrieved earlier and observed during the present investigation suggests that the pottery is not similar to those found from the shipwrecks of the 10th century AD onwards. Comparative study of pottery and stone artefacts indicate a possible time bracket for this wreck to be between the 4th century BC and the 2nd century AD.

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Figure 2. Underwater Plan of the shipwreck site

Figure 2. Underwater Plan of the shipwreck site

Background information

In ancient times Godawaya was known as Godapavatapatanahathat is mentioned in a Brahmi inscription found in Godawaya (Falk 2001: 328) dated to the 2nd century AD (Roth et al. 2001: 296), and in Mahavamsa the etymological identifiable term ‘Gotapabbata’ is used (Geiger 1912: 255). There are two other Brahmi inscriptions reported from Godawaya area. The earliest archaeological evidence from Godawaya trace the history of this region from the Mesolithic period onward. The Mesolithic site is situated on the eastern bank of the river Walawe Ganga, on a raised hillock and a few projected boulders might have served as shelter for prehistoric people. The river merges with the sea immediately after the site. Godawaya is a small fishing village (Fig. 1), situated between Ambalantota and Hambantota near the mouth of the river Walawe Ganga that is the fourth biggest river of the country on the southern coast of Sri Lanka. However, the mouth of the river near Godawaya is blocked by sand deposit and now the river is debouching in the sea at Ambalantota 3 km west of Godawaya. Along the course of Walawe River a number of ancient settlements and monasteries such as Ridiyagama, Mahanavulupura and Ramba monastic complex have been either excavated or thoroughly explored. There are also reports on the discovery of Indo-Roman coins from this area (Burnett 1998).

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Figure 3. Large-sized jar seen on the wreck site

Figure 3. Large-sized jar seen on the wreck site

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Figure 4. Large-sized jar seen on the wreck site

Figure 4. Large-sized jar seen on the wreck site

A land excavation was conducted by the Archaeological Department of Sri Lanka and the German K.A.W.A. project in the last decade of the previous century.  After a series of explorations and excavations from 1994 at Godawaya some of the very significant structural remains such as a temple, harbour and an important inscription were unearthed (Ruth 1998). An inscription carved on a natural rock north of the Stupa states about a seaport situated at Godawaya (Falk 2001). The present paper deals with the underwater explorations at the wreck site off Godawaya that is lying in 32–33 m of water. The programme was jointly organized by the Central Cultural Fund of Sri Lanka, UNESCO and the Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands. The preliminary investigation indicates that wreck may be a wooden-hulled vessel dated to the early historical period. On the basis of archaeological findings the date of the wreck will be discussed in detail.

Methodology

Three fibre boats were hired for the underwater inspection of the wreck site. These boats are 19 ft (5.79 m) long and 6 ft (1.82 m) wide. In the absence of any jetty or harbour in Godawaya, the boats were pushed manually into the sea and taken out every day. The exploration team is comprised of 10 full-time divers and 2 part-time (6 from abroad, 4 from the Maritime Archaeology Unit [/fusion_builder_column][fusion_builder_column type=”1_1″ background_position=”left top” background_color=”” border_size=”” border_color=”” border_style=”solid” spacing=”yes” background_image=”” background_repeat=”no-repeat” padding=”” margin_top=”0px” margin_bottom=”0px” class=”” id=”” animation_type=”” animation_speed=”0.3″ animation_direction=”left” hide_on_mobile=”no” center_content=”no” min_height=”none”][MAU] and 2 from Godawaya). Two members had underwater digital cameras for photography. Further, three sub teams were formed and each team consisted of 3 divers. Two divers worked on assigned tasks, while the job of third diver was to monitor the activity and dive times. Due to the absence of a decompression chamber at the site, dive bottom time was limited to 18 minutes, the maximum time allowed for a no-decompression dive. Two buoys were initially placed over the site; these also served as shot lines for diver entry and exit. Using a rope with a metre tape attached, a 50-m baseline was established on a bearing of 300°. The length was then divided into three divisions that served as the teams’ respective area of assignment. All observed archaeological features and cultural material were plotted using the offset method, and each artefact was described and measured (length, width and height). One team was tasked to do site photo-documentation using two digital cameras and one underwater video camera; recording on-site activities and take photographs of individual artefacts. The mound of timbers or planks on the northern side of the baseline was recorded in detail. Based on collected data, a preliminary site map was created.

Results

The site of the Godawaya shipwreck is situated about 4 km south-east of the Godawaya monastery and water depth varies between 29 m and 32 m. The seabed near the site is comprised of coralline rocky formation, whereas towards the north-eastern part of the site a wide area is covered with thick-grained coralline sand. The maximum height of the reef on the north-western part is approximately 1.5 m. No vegetation growth was observed at the site; however, in a few places gorgonian growth was noticed besides some marine pinkish layer on the rocks.

The measurements of the artefacts visible on the surface indicate that the site is spread in a 40 m east–west and 22 m north–south direction (Fig. 2). However, extension of the site may increase when surface sand is removed. Interestingly, at one place the removal of sand by hand fanning yielded a number of potsherds just below 10 cm in the sediment. Thus the actual extent of the site may be determined only after thorough examination of the site by the removal of surface sediments.

Numerous artefacts were observed on the seabed, including varieties of pottery, stone benches/querns, and a large area in the north-western part was covered with the remains of a shipwreck with unidentified cargo.
There are several potsherds lying on the wreck site area which comprise two huge storage jars (Figs 3 & 4), medium sized jars, carinated cooking vessel besides a number of rims of jars (Fig. 5) and body parts of other pots. The surviving height of two storage jars was 100 and 85 cm respectively and the diameter of the rims 45 and 40 cm respectively.

Figure 5. Rim of broken jar found on the wreck site

Figure 5. Rim of broken jar found on the wreck site

Figure 8. Glass ingot retrieved earlier from the wreck site.

Figure 8. Glass ingot retrieved earlier from the wreck site.

Figure 6. Stone bench/quern lying on the wreck site

Figure 6. Stone bench/quern lying on the wreck site

Figure 9. Main part of the wreck

Figure 9. Main part of the wreck

Figure 7. Stone bench/quern retrieved earlier from the wreck site

Figure 7. Stone bench/quern retrieved earlier from the wreck site

Figure 10. Stone bench/quern with Brahmi inscription displayed in Yatala site museum

Figure 10. Stone bench/quern with Brahmi inscription displayed in Yatala site museum

Another interesting find from the wreck site includes stone benches or querns (Fig. 6). There are four such artefacts and they are of various sizes (Table 1). A few stone benches were also found attached either to wreck parts or some other encrustation. Therefore, the actual size may be slightly different when measurements are obtained after retrieving the artefacts from the wreck. The benches are rectangular in shape with four legs which serve as a base.

Sr. no. Length(cm) Width(cm) Height(cm)
1. Displayed at Maritime Museum, Galle 37.5 15.5 16.5
2. Underwater (in situ) SB 1

30

viagra canadian pharmacy dosage

20

10

3. Underwater (in situ) SB 2

45

30

26

4. Underwater (in situ)SB 3

45

30

20

5. Underwater (in situ) SB 4

37

16

10

Table 1.    The details of measurements of Quern Stone

Registration no. Height(cm)

Diameter

(cm)

Weight

(g)

2 0 0 8 / S L / S /  GODA/M/2/01

9

19

3987.6
2 0 0 8 / S L / S /  GODA/M/2/09

9

18

2722.4

Table 2.   Details of glass ingots retrieved from the wreck site

The raw material used for these benches appears to be basalt. Due to thick encrustation growth over these artefacts no symbol or designs could be noticed. However, a bench retrieved earlier by local divers has some symbols (Fig. 7) on the extended front portion.

Other important finds from the wreck are glass ingots. Two ingots were retrieved earlier and are presently displayed in the Galle Fort Maritime Museum (Table 2). They are blue in color and semi spherical or bun-shaped. As per the report from the earlier investigation, there are about 3 or 4 ingots visible on the surface (Fig. 8).
In the north-west part of the site a large area with wreckage was noticed (Fig. 9). This area is divided into two separate blocks and appears to be parts of the cargo. From the surface observation they appear to be wooden logs covered with marine growth. One block measures 4.6 m in length and 1.2 m in width. This block is further divided into 2 bunches. The height is about 1 m with at least 4 layers visible. However, the entire wreckage part has been integrated due to being overgrown with marine encrustation, thus making it difficult to identify. Another big block is squarish, 3.9 m long and 3.7 m wide, and further subdivided into four blocks. The height of this block is c. 1.2 m. The measurement of a log is c. 10 x 15 x 200 cm. The blocks appear to be the major part of the cargo of the ship. From their shape and size they at first appear to be wooden planks, but from close observation underwater the material does not appear to be wood. It is possibly metal. This needs to be further investigated.

Discussion

Many ships have been wrecked around Sri Lanka (Manders et al. 2004) but Gudawaya is a very unique shipwreck and no parallel has been reported in publications. It is therefore of the utmost importance to continue the investigation of this site in order to fill in the gaps of our knowledge about early historic trade. The material found from this wreck such as pottery, stone quern, glass ingots, wreckage parts and the possible date of this wreck will be discussed in the following paragraphs.

Pottery

Pottery discovered at shipwreck sites has served daily household purposes in the past, but nowadays a good way to date the archaeological sites. At the same time it is also an indication of the movement and extension of a
particular culture. Thus it is pertinent to have a detailed discussion of the pottery discovered at the Godawaya shipwreck site.

Large cheap canadian viagra numbers of potsherds were noticed during the present investigation and a few recovered earlier have been identified as Black and Red Ware. At least two large-sized jars were at least 1.3 m in height. The earliest findings of large-sized jars come from the Mediterranean Sea dating back to the 1400 BC at Uluburun (Pulak 1998: 203) and continued till the 17th century AD. Besides large jars, a few medium and smaller sized jars were also noticed. These have been very common for a long time. However, the other important sherds are of black and red ware and special mention may be made of a carinated cooking vessel. Examples were found at several Megalithic sites
in India (Wheeler 1948: 274) and Sri Lanka (De’Silva & Dissanayake 2008: 197).

Black and red ware have a special place in the archaeology of the Indian subcontinent and the earliest date of the ware goes back to the 3rd millennium BC and continued with some variation till the early centuries of the Christian era (Gurumurthy 1981: 242). However, it has been prominently associated with the Megalithic culture of South India (Wheeler 1959: 62–63) dating back to the beginning of the first millennium BC to 3rd century AD
(Gurumurthy 1981: 245). There has been debate over the firing technique of this ware. Initially, it was suggested that it was the result of inverted firing with the rim covered with ashes (Petrie 1910: 530); however, Majumdar (1969: 90–93) proposes a different view: ‘the ordinary kiln without special arrangement can only produce either a wholly red or wholly black pot irrespective of its position in the kiln’. According to him there are ways in which, under special arrangement, the double colour effect can be achieved. These are:

  1. Single firing;
  2. Double firing, when the pot is first fired red and firing it, so that the region intended to be black purposely, protected against oxidation, turns black; and
  3. Double firing, but this time, firing the pot black first and re-firing it when a portion becomes red.

Pottery reported from the site is very commonly used and might have been used for storing water and other liquid substances like oil. The comparative study of the pottery from the Godawaya wreck with other terrestrial sites of Sri Lanka suggests a time bracket of the 4th century BC to 1st century BC (Table 3).

Pottery from Godawaya

LKB

Lower Kirinda Basin Typology

Gg Anuradhapura Gedige Typology

Tss Akkurugoda Tissamaharama Typology

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Comparative Dating
2008/SL/S/GODA/M/2/02godawaya-pottery-01
2008/SL/S/GODA/M/2/03godawaya-pottery-02 Form 13A 1 / Phase III350-250 BCE /page148–9 Form 3b? no ReferenceForm 4a or 5f ? no Reference Form A1-1 / Rim type 4 / Phase a, b & ci/400–200 BCE Page61/75/114/139/140-142/152/157 400–100 BCE
2008/SL/S/GODA/M/2/04
   2008/SL/S/GODA/M/2/05BRW plate/Pathragodawaya-pottery-03 Form 1A3 / Phase I /900–500 BCEForm 1A3 (Sub type1c1) TB/1/54,  exterior 7.5YR, 6/6Orange, interior— black, paste fine, luster—medium, ware—BRW, diameter 21cm, thickness– 5.33mm(Phase I) RS page 212/ (900–500 BCE)

Form 16c (iii) 800–100 BCE

Gg page 76/77/111/115

Form G / Rim type 5a / Phase a & b /400–200 BCE Page 61/93/120/140/148/151

900–100 BCE

2008/SL/S/GODA/M/2/06Small RBW bowl/cupgodawaya-pottery-04 Form 5I-1 / Phase III/350–250 BCE Form 16a (iii/iv) 800–100 BCEGg page 76/77/111 Form G / Rim type 5a & 4 Phase a /400–300 BCE Page 61/93/120/141/154 800 BCE–350 CE
2008/SL/S/GODA/M/2/07godawaya-pottery-05 Form 8n (ii /iii) 50–200 CEGg page 72/74/114/115 Form F1 / Rim type 5 & 4b/ Phase b /300–200 BCEPage 61/91/119/140/141/150/50 300 BCE–200 BCE
2008/SL/S/GODA/M/2/08godawaya-pottery-06 Form 8d (ii) ??-??CEGg page 72/73/118 Form F / Rim type 1,2,4b / Phase a & b /400–200 BCE Page 61/91/119/140–142/ 146/147/155/159/192 400–200 BCE

Table 3.    Comparison of pottery of Godawaya wreck with other terrestrial sites in Sri Lanka

Stone Quern/ Bench

The important finds from the shipwreck of Godawaya is the presence of stone querns in significant numbers. In archaeological literature this stone artefact has been referred to as querns for grinding the soft substance for foodstuff like curry paste. Stone querns have been reported as early as the Mesolithic period in the Indian subcontinent. However, during the Neolithic and protohistoric periods the querns were nicely shaped. A large number of querns have been reported at archaeological sites in the Indian subcontinent (Ghosh 1989: 184). However, our concern is with a four-legged quern and this shape appeared some time during the 4th century BC in Hastinapur (Lal 1955) and continued till the 3rd century AD at several sites in India and Sri Lanka . Some of the important sites with 4-legged querns include Nevasa (IAR 1955–56: 10) dated to the 1st century BC, Bahal (IAR, 1956-57: 18) dated the 3rd century BC, Nagarjunakonda (IAR 1957–58: 8) the 1st century BC, Atter (IAR 1957–58: 23) and Nagal (IAR 1961–62: 12) dated to the 3rd century BC, Kundanpur (IAR1961–62: 29) and Noh (IAR 1963–64: 29) they are dated to the 1st century BC/AD. Similarly querns at Paithan (IAR 1965–66: 28) are dated between the 3rd century BC and the 1st century AD, at Udapur and Adam (IAR 1975–76: 35–36) they are associated with black and red ware. At Satanikota (IAR 1977–78: 9) the 1st century BC/AD and Boregaon (IAR 1980–81) quern are associated with the Megalithic period, similarly at Khairwada (1981–82: 52) querns are dated to the Megalithic period. At Nadner (IAR 1986–87: 57) querns are dated to the 4th–3rd century BC, at Adam (1988–89: 56) legged querns have been dated to 500–150 BC and they have incised designs like Swastika, Nandipad and Mina, at Bet Dwarka (Gaur et al. 2005) stone querns have been found in association with the early historic period. The most interesting site four-legged quern is Pauni (IAR 1989–90: 58) in Maharashtra where a few hundreds of such querns have been discovered and most of them are broken into two. Most of the querns are rectangular in shape but a few are square and apsidal shape. They are made of different stones like sandstone, quartzite and Deccan trap. Another interesting site at Nasik (Sankalia & Deo 1955: 117) in Maharashtra yielded 16 legged querns and majority of them have one end projected with a view to let any pounded material fall into
a dish kept below the projection. These ends are either rectangular or rounded and 4 of them are decorated with a crescent-shaped incised dotted portion over which is an embossed figure of the Buddhist Triratna. Nagda
(Banerjee 1986: 258) and Kaundinyapura (Dikshit 1968) are other important sites where legged querns have been found in association with Satavahana period (2nd century BC to 1st century AD).

In Sri Lanka, the Yatala monastery (Somadeva 2006: 193) close to Godawaya yielded several stone querns with four legs and one the querns has a Brahmi inscription dated to the 250–100 BC (Fig. 10). Ramba, a large Buddhist
site on the southern Sri Lankan coast also has evidence of a quern which is displayed in the site museum.

There has been substantial discussion on the uses of this stone object and questions have been raised about why there are so many of such artefacts found at the wreck site. Let us examine the possibility of the use of this object. As stated earlier in archaeological literatureof India and Sri Lanka the object has been mentioned as a quern, and nowhere has any doubt been raised about the uses of it as a quern stone. If this was used as a quern stone for personal use, then one or two are enough, and the decoration on the surface of the front part of the stone would not be necessary. But, what about a different use? What about it being a seat for monks to meditate? The discovery of a number of such stone artefacts from Buddhist monasteries at Yatala and Ramba does support the above notion. However, if one carefully examines the stones then a few stones at Yatala and Ramba have a significant depression in the middle of the stone suggesting their uses as a quern stone. The height and the size (very small for use as seat for meditation) of the artefact does not act as a comfortable seat for meditation. Thus the use of this artefact as seat for meditation may be a weak argument. The alternate use of this artefact is as quern stone. However, a stone such as one at Yatala which bears the Brahmi inscription might never have been used as a grinding stone and rather just for some symbolic purposes. As stated earlier, a few hundred querns have been found from Pauni in India, which must have been a production centre for supplying other contemporary areas. Similarly, the findings of a large number of these artefacts on the Godawaya wreck site suggest that they were one of the export items of the ship for the destined country.

An interesting domestic scene is depicted in a sculptural panel on the south side of the eastern gate of the main Stupa at Sanchi (Central India). Amongst the women depicted in the panel who are engaged in doing several domestic works like winnowing, grinding, churning etc., one is using a quern with four legs. Here it has been clearly demonstrated that the projected part of the grinding surface of the quern is at the farther end from the woman and only this particular scene gives us an idea of the exact position in which a quern is placed while in use (Ghosh 1986: 154). This depiction is dated to the 2nd century BC and leaves little doubt on the uses of these stones as quern. As discussed above the most probable use of this stone artefact is as a quern and in an archaeological context it may be dated between the 2nd century BC and the 2nd century AD.
Glass ingots
This artefact has been referred to in a earlier publication as a glaze ingot (Muthukumaran 2009: 21–26. It is in fact silica glass in a bun-shape. Glass ingots have been recorded from the Uluburun wreck (Pulak 1998) dating back to the late Bronze Age. However, glass ingots are not reported so often; thus, this discovery becomes an important one from this region. The first regular production of glass was in Mesopotamia and Egypt around 1500 BC or slightly earlier (Shortland & Eremin 2006: 581–603). The evidence of glass objects from this region dates back to the early historic time. Bangles and beads are often common finds from these sites. The mechanism of the use of these ingots as raw material for manufacturing bangles and beads needs further investigation. Similarly, these ingots may not independently provide a possible time bracket and origin for the production. However, elemental analysis may provide the origin of these ingots.

Wreckage remains
Though this is the most important part the wreck, no conclusive work, unfortunately, could be done due to limited working time at 31 m depth. The wooden structure at the site has not been identified, the bulk of which is scattered c. 10 m in length and c. 3.5 m in width. Observations underwater, however, initially indicated that this appeared to be bunches of wooden logs. Closer examination, by scraping of some of the material, revealed that it did not look like wood but rather some kind of metal. This part needs a detailed investigation not only on site but also by taking a few samples for analysis.

Possible date of the wreck

In published material, the earliest shipwreck in this region that has been investigated is in Belitung Island, Indonesia, and has been dated to the 9th century AD (Flecker 2001: 335–354). The material found from this wreck includes Chinese ceramics and has no parallel with the Godawaya wreck in respect of ceramic or other finds. Thus the date of the Godawaya wreck is the pre 9th century AD. Another reason in favour of an earlier date is the absence of any pottery like Martaban, Khamer or Islamic glazed which has been used exclusively for the overseas trade irrespective of the origin of the ship during this period. The age of the wreck is an important point and needs to be discussed in light of the archaeological material found from this wreck as no parallel dated shipwreck has ever been found from this region to date.

Pottery found from the wreck may be crucial in pinpointing the approximate age of the wreck. As stated earlier, large-sized jars have been used in ships for cargo transportation since the Bronze Age (Bass 1973: 29–38) and continued until the late medieval period. However, the shape of jars significantly changed in the later period. As for the jars from the Godawaya wreck, they have a globular base and must have been placed in a place where some kind of additional base was provided to them otherwise they would roll-down. As of now it is difficult to say if there are other types of jars present in the wreck because of the fact that major parts of the wreck are still buried. Other ceramics, like carinated dishes, may be important to determine the approximate time bracket. Though this variation is available throughout the prehistoric and historical time, the fabric of these pots indicate their association with the later Megalithic period.

At present, the most valuable and prominent finding that has provided substantial information on the possible date of the shipwreck is the stone quern. The stone quern has been reported from various archaeological sites in definite context from India as well as Sri Lanka. Stone querns appear from the Mesolithic period onwards, but the appearance of four-legged querns may be dated to the 4th century BC in many archaeological sites in India. And, more prolific appearances may be traced during the Satavahana period (2nd century BC to 1st century BC) (Dikshit 1968). Thus a date between the 2nd century BC and the 2nd century AD may be the possible age bracket
of this wreck.

Conclusions

There have been reports and publications on the several shipwrecks in and around the Indian Ocean countries during the last two decades or so. However, those wrecks are dated between the 9th century AD and up to the early 20th century AD. Thus the information on the early shipwrecks was virtually zero and the Godawaya wreck site has provided much needed impetus to the maritime archaeology of this region. The seabed observation indicates that a large part of the wreck is buried in the sediment and the extent of the site can only be determined after a complete investigation. The cargo material such as quern and pottery appears to be originally of the Indian subcontinent region; hence, it is very possible that the origin of the ship may be traced to this region. A large number of quern and pottery indicate that these items may also be part of a trading commodity. The major
part of the wreckage needs to be identified and that will reveal the kind of cargo ships used to carry at that time. On the basis of current findings from this wreck it is suggested that the origin of the vessel may be traced regionally (more broadly the Indian subcontinent). The comparative study of archaeological findings such as pottery and stone quern indicate a possible date of the wreck between the 2nd century BC and the 2nd century AD. Hence, a wreck of this period is a lone example from this part of the world. As this is a preliminary report, the dating and cargo identification may change as more evidence is gathered during the future investigation of the wreck site.

Acknowledgements

We thank Prof. Nimal de Silva, the Director General of the Central Cultural Fund and Dr Senarath Disanayeke, the Director General of the Department of Archaeology for supporting this programme. Authors are thankful to the funding agencies including UNESCO and the Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands. We also acknowledge the assistance rendered by Mr Sunil and Preminde during the survey work.

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1. Munshiram Manoharlal, New Delhi: 184–185.

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Book Launch – Rock Painting and Engraving Sites in Sri Lanka

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Cover Page

Author :  Raj Somadewa PhD

Publisher: The Postgraduate Institute of Archaeology, University of Kelaniya

Prize: Rs. 9000/= /  ₤

 45/= / $ 65/= (10% discount available for booksellers)

ISBN: 978-955-8522-12-7

This book presents the results of a two years field survey project carried out on the Rock Paintings and Engraving(RPE) sites in Sri Lanka. 23 RPE sites out of 57 have been visited and photographically documented. The book contains a comprehensive text covering different aspects of the subject. This is the first full-fledge publication based on the Rock Paintings and buying cialis Engravings Sites in Sri Lanka.

135 colour plates, 20 maps, 2 tables casinoustenoon.com and 200 pages in 150 gsm art paper(matt), section thick bind, hard cover in four colours, book size 22ˣ25cms.

Publication will be launched on  September 18, 2012 at 3:30pm.

Please contact PGIAR library for more details.

Assistant Librarian,

Postgraduate Institute of Archaeology,

407, Bauddhaloka Mawatha,

Colombo 07

Sri Lanka

Tel: 94 11 2699623

Email: rathnabahu@kln.ac.lk

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