Chandima Bandara Ambanwala

Waaxda Dhaqanka iyo Maareynta Dhaqaalaha, Jaamacadda Rajarata ee Sri Lanka, Mihintale.

Hab-nololeedka ah

Chandima Ambanwala

Qadiimiga ah ay awoodeen in la ogaado iyada oo excavations qaddiimiga ah ee dalka ama kṣudraśilā madhyaśilā cunto aadanaha iyo macluumaad ku saabsan badan oo ka mid ah goobaha qaddiimiga ah godadka iyo aaga qoyan dalka ku yar zone engegan. Far-Bulathsinghala hiyaṁ god, oo ku yaalla meel u dhow baṭadom̆balena Ratnapura iyo Avissawella dhow Kithulgala Belilena oo ka mid ah arrimo badan oo ku lug leh oo shaaca ka qaaday by excavations qaddiimiga fuliyay in tirada saxda ah ee jeer godadka. Marka loo eego waxyaabahan, waa cadahay in dhammaan kalluunka ay gacanta ku hayaan waxaa loo isticmaalaa cunnooyinka bani-aadamka iyadoo ay joogaan jeermiska. Hab kale oo cad in dadka xoolaha, taas oo ka dhigan qaybaha kala duwan ee godadka Batu mouse in kubka maroodiga ah in wakiil ay ka noqoto xayawaanka feed Balangoda Man ku. Sida laga soo xigtay daraasadaha asaasiga ah, cuntadani si muuqata uma muuqato bilawga bilowga wakhtiyada horukaca ilaa dhamaadka.

nin Madhyaśilā tilmaami karaa in ka badan oo xoolo ah in la qaato cunto dan̆ḍulēnā, silicone, caanaqubta, DABAGAALE, uruḷǣvā, iyo xayawaanka ay ka midka yihiin qolof iyo daanyeer. Baaxaddani waxay sababi kartaa xajmiga xayawaankan si ay u daboosho xajmiga yar ee xayawaanka yar iyo kuwa kale ee waaweynba. Xayawaanka waaweyn ee yar-yar, sida khaanadaha duurjoogta ah iyo dhoobada, waxay ka yar yihiin asalka. Sidoo kale, matalida xoolaha waaweyn ee lo'du waa mid hooseeya. Sidaa awgeed, dhadhanka dhadhanka ama sababaha dhaqameedu uma muuqan wax cunid ah, xayawaankana iyo matalaadkooda ku saabsan qaadista cuntada waxaa lagu go'aamin karaa sida ay u fududahay.

Waxaa cunay by xayawaanka maroodi Balangoda Man, gavarā, miharakā dhir udgoon, oo orso u madow, iska daaqda ugaadha, Sambar, barbaro deerada, silicone, caanaqubta, bakaylaha, gudbanaa Dabagaale, DABAGAALE, feertameyo, civet, daanyeer, haad-dhilif, spurfowl, Python padlocks fanfoot square, xiddiga diin, masaska (tukan jiray, snakeballs sida), qadhaadh, kalluun biyo nadiif ah, sida Lula haysteen biyaha saafiga ah, østers, geedaha iyo goḍabm matalaan guud.

2005 sano faafidda badan furitaanka balaadhan ayaa loo sameeyey si ay u fahmaan madhyaśilā ku kṣūdraśilā cunto dad ama xayawaan ah ayaa weli laga helay by set oo ah dalka excavations qaddiimiga ah lagu fuliyay sanadkii fog-Bulathsinghala godka hiyan. La-taliyaha Dr. Shiran Deraniyagala iyo Dr. Sida laga soo xigtay Nimal Perera hoosta kormeerida Waaxda Dhaqanka, dhakhtar caafimaadka xoolaha H. Hathurusinghe, Judd Perera ayaa falanqeeyay noocyada xayawaanka soo socda ee la aqoonsaday.

Buffalo gisi iyo nuujiya duurjoogta, deerada elg, Sambar, qayliyo deerada, silicone, iska daaqda ugaadha duurjoogta, maroodiga, shabeel ama shabeel, cat Rusty-barbaraha, uguḍuvan gaar ah, hōtabuvan cad in wakiilka gaarka ah. Waxaa sidoo kale civet dheeraad ah, dawaco, daanyeer caleen, .Analysts daanyeer, kabællǣvā, bakayle duurjoogta ah, caanaqubta, dan̆ḍulēnā, Dabagaale Rahula, rat bandicoot, rat iyo ciid hoy u tahay xoolaha sida jiirka oo lagu aqoonsan karo. matalaad Xoolaha ee xamaarato iyo Yaxaas kabaragoyā fanfoot, qorratada, lagu tukan jiray, noocyada aan la aqoonsan ee mas, qoolley, Rah iyo caanaha loo aqoonsaday dhowr diin kala duwan. Inta kale ee shimbirta shaaca ka qaaday adkaynayaa ah ee kor ku xusan ayaa la xaqiijiyay in tiro ka mid ah cuntada loo qaato foraging haad iyo in aan la hufan aqoonsan karo.

Ninka da'da dhexe wuxuu heystaa ururin gaar ah oo qashinka ah oo biyo ah iyo biyo cusbo ah oo uu cuno. Waxaa jira noocyo badan oo noocyada kaluunka ah ee kalluunka, kuwaas oo ka mid ah Lilla, Noutta, Hunga, Mugura iyo Karaya. Tusaalooyinka waxay muujinayaan sida dhul-duurka loo yaqaan 'Oyster' loo yaqaan 'loo yaqaan' loo yaqaan 'molecules' oo ku jira dhulka cuntada dhexdhexaadka ah oo ka dhigan labada qolool ee ku nool biyaha. Acacia superbus, Acavus phoenix, Acavus heamastoma, Acavus sp., Qolof strawberry, Poliii Oligospira, Cyclophorus sp., Aulopoma sp. Iyo Tortulosa sp. Noocyada kala duwan ee Paludomus neritoides, Paludomus loricatus, Palulomus sulcatus iyo Pila sp. Sidoo kale ma metelaan noocyo kala duwan.

Waxa muhiim ah dhibeen dareenka ka mid ah taariikhyahanadu ee Prague si ay ugala hadlaan Sri Lanka ee madhyaśilā cunto aadanaha waxaa cuntada la dhex dhigay gacankudhiiglayaashii arrimo ka mid xaqiiqda ah in Storm ah. degsiimooyinka innoo ayaa laga helay lafo dad, qaybo yaryar ama lagu gubay ka dib markii la ogaaday in ay leeyihiin la siiyo taageero si ay u gaaraan sida transactional opinion purāvidyāgnayinṭa iyo iyaga isku qasan qashinka cuntada. Ka faallooda arrintan, khubarada qaarkood waxay tilmaameen in bani-aadmadu ay saameyn gaar ah ku yeeshaan nafaqada dadka inta lagu jiro waqtigan. Dhinaca kale, maxaa yeelay, qashinka lagu qubo jikada la in noocyada aan lafta, iyagoo leh ma malayn karaa fikradda ah isticmaalka qasheen oo lagu ogaaday in la qashinka ah.

Madha dhirta

Sidaas qadiimiga ah ilaa hadda awood uma yeelan in la ogaado kabxidda qaddiimiga ah iyada oo qodobada rasmiga ah iyo waxyaabaha dhirta cunto ku filan lagu cunay by nin innoo madhyaśilā Lanka. In Sri Lanka, iyo sidoo kale cilmi-fitnada Al-sayniska ee la sameeyey bishii South East Asia, bulshooyinka kayd ugaadhsade beelo deegaanka analoogga arkay Lanka, cuni kari cuntada in ay shaki ku jirin in uu cuntada loo isticmaalo oo dhan. Sida laga soo xigtay, lowska dheer (Canarium zeylanicum), Rootiga digaaga (Artocarpus nobilis), Kitul (Kaadida Caryota) Iyo Athi Kehel (Jannada Musa) Iyo midhaha (Dioscorea Spicata), Baradhada badarka (Dioscora pentaphylla) Iyo Mussaenda frondosa, iyo sidoo kale amber (Mangifera zeylanica), LuvolusChrysophyllum roxburghii) Iyo Thumbiri (Xaaladda diospyrosWaxa kale oo suurtagal ah in la isticmaalo noocyo badan. Qaniinyada ka mid ah hilibka si ay u cunaan waa (Terminalia belerica) Iyo Madhu (Wareegga Cycas) Weli jiray. Hornbeam ka mid ah midhaha miraha dhirta (Flacourtia ramontchi), Folder (Manilkara hexandra), Heroic (Hemicyclia sepiaria), Ilaahi ah (Feroni maroodaan), Xeebaha (Elaeocarpus serratus), Morah (Cryptocarya wightiana), Horns (Loxococcus rupicol), Marka (Casearia esculenta), Dhagaxyada waa la aasayaa (Diyariga qaxoontiga), Morah (Nephelium longana), Himbutu (Salecia reticulata), Corn (Schleichera oleosa), Kirishya (Sonneratia acida), Madan (Syzygium cumini), Bullets (Terminalia belerica), Caanaha (Walsura piscidiaIyo Hein Eraminia (Zizyphus oenophia) Midhaha miraha (Bassia longifoliaUbaxa, iwm.).

Tani waa wax aan macquul aheyn si ay u falanqeeyaan xogta ee madhyaśilā Sri Lanka oo dhan la malaysan kartaa in caadiga ah ee ay cunto.

Balangodaya ilkaha dadka (Bellanbendipellissa - ilkaha way dhaaftay) Sawir: Kelum Manamendraarachchi

caddayn ugu cad waa la arki karo in tiro ka mid ah kiisaska in ay la yeesheen ee la soo dhaafay hoos u dhac wayn ay suparikṣā oo ka mid ah ilkaha ee Man Balangoda ah. tijaabooyinka, ayaa waxa ay goobaha innoo si fiican u yaqaan sida Embilipitiya Bellanbendipelessa iyo baṭadom̆balena Kuruwita. Si aad u muujiso Duugga aan caadi ahayn this in ilkaha la malaysan karo in tiro badan oo cuntada lagu daray ciid in ay cunto. Xaaladda cuntada wax lagu karsado, waa lagama maarmaan in lagu daro maraqa. Waxa kale oo koobaya ah bayoolaji iyo Dhulka oo aan baradho ah soodhaha nadiif dhagan in ay biology aan xeer gooni ah cuntada iyo hilibka ka hor inta ilkaha waxaa laga yaabaa inay ku dhaafto badan ama ka yar on sababaha loo dhaqaaqo. Kale tilmaamay in falanqaynta ee jirka mānavidyāgnayin Balangoda caddayn ilkaha aadanaha meelaha kala duwan ee dadkaas haystay cudurada ilkaha badan ka yar heleen. Hunter ururiya ee dalka iyo sidoo kale Veddas madhyaśilā Vicky nooc aadanaha iyo yaqaanaan dhirta kala duwan si ay u ciyi badan tahay in saamaynta this.

Exchange

Bellanbendipelessa Hoolandawa, Kithulgala Belilena iyo baṭadom̆balena ah qolofka ee oysters ku nool badda ayaa laga helay meelo. Baṭadom̆balena helay dabada daadisa lakabka ah ee ciidda waqti ka hor 19,000 sano ka hor oo waxa uu ahaa shan-lakabka belikaṭuvak badda kālanīrṇaya ah ka gaartay 16,000 sano. (Lagoons B waxaa loo aqoonsaday sida oysters lagu qaso cusbo.) Oysters Salt helay meelo ka mid ah Kithulgala belilenin ayaa la kulmay shan layers of time ka hor 30,000 sano. Goobta ugu dhow ee Kithulgala Beligane ku yaalo waa ka yar tahay 80. Sidaa daraadeed waa muhiim in la fahmo in kulannadani ay ku soo galeen godadka dalka oo ku salaysan aragti aasaasi ah. Biyaha ayaa loo eegaa, ugu yaraan waqtiga si loo ogaado in oysters kuwaas oo la biyaha milixda keenay by awood taariikhda in la xiro, kuwaas oo goobaha qaddiimiga iman. Dadka ka warhayaan isticmaalka cusbo in meelahan la nool, iyo deposit cusbo in waqtiga waxay u badan tahay in ay tani laga yaabaa in ay gaaraan ama xataa iyada oo loo marayo habka sarrifka genaennaṭa. Madhu ee badda ku jira ee dheeraad ah oo cadaynaya on kalluunka, iyo xaqiiqooyinka ku saabsan shark Shabeel ka, iyo sidoo kale dalka lohod kala duwan, waxaa la muujin kartaa sabab u ballaarinta dhaafsiga shaaca ka qaaday xaaladaha guhāvanhi dhexe.

Degsiimada

dadka pre-taariikhi Sri Lanka ayaa qaba shaki oo dhan ma hoygooda. meelaha caqabadaha Environmental ma lagu tagi karaa nin ama deegaanka zone ah xaaladaha deegaanka ku haboon rug aadanaha, halkaas oo dadka fursad u leeyihiin inay haysan meel kasta ee Sri Lanka. Dhinaca kale, ka dalka meesha ay ka jirto awood u leh in ay gaaraan meeshii mar kasta oo kale. Sidaa darteed, dadka dalka ayaa meel walba la rabshado, sida meel kasta oo dejinta aadanaha ayaa sidoo kale loo isticmaali doono sida ku haboon rugtii. cilmi qaddiimiga ah ku qaadeen ilaa iyo haatan iyo sida ay waxbarashada, waxaa jira meelo in tilmaami karaa nooca dejinta, oo ku salaysan meesha uu dalka. Iyadoo la raacayo, iraṇaḍu ayaa dhagaxayga weyn iyo goobaha kale ee lagu aasaasay degsiimo oo ku yaalla meelaha dibedda iyo Walling ayaa sheegay in godadka iyo dhagaxyada aaga qoyan iyo meelo kale madhyaśilā dejinta loo aqoonsado. Ayaa loo aqoonsaday tiro ka mid ah meelaha of dabaqa shanaad Iranamadu iyo degsiimooyinka kale dibadda ee Embilipitiya dhow Bellanbendipelessa, pallēmaḷala, miṇīætiḷiya ambalaṁtoṭa dhow, Mathota ama Mannar, Anuradhapura, oo ay ku jirto magaalada, gobolka buuraleyda ah ee mahaeḷiya ama ag tuuli maayo Horton Babacyada Church (Church Hill) meelaha sida qadiimiga ah ku bartay maadada. Kuruwita dhow godkii zone qoyan dalka dhagax dabiiciga ah baṭadom̆balena Avissawella Kithulgala Belilena, attanagoḍa aḷulena block Warakapola madaxkuti ​​Attanagalla potgullena Gampaha, farshaxannada, sida godadka, degsiimooyinka madhyaśilā dissection godka sida si fiican u yaqaan ee dalka. Sigiriya dhow Aligala qoyan iyo qalalan zone dhexe, iyo Pidurangala Pothanegama boholaha madhyaśilā iyo qadiimiga ah ay awoodeen in ay helaan natiijada qodista ee meelihiisa la deggan yahay taajir ahaa.

Dhulka dhulku ka kooban yahay qaab dhismeedka ciidda Iranamadu

About 28,500 dadka meter square kilometers cufnaanta dadweynaha aaga qoyan ee Sri Lanka muddada madhyaśilā ka hor 0.1 sano ka hor, mugga dadweynaha ee gobolka kiiloomitir oo laba jibbaaran oo qalalan ayaa lagu qiyaasaa in dadka ku jira in 0.8 ka 0.25. Iyadoo la raacayo, haddii qoysku uu leeyahay in ay ku noolaadaan xubno ka kooban nyasṭika 10 50 zone km oo nin keliya ah aaga qoyan ee 5 zone km. South East Asia ayaa haatan ku nool ugaadhsade ururiya caddaynta fitnada Al-qaddiimiga ah ka janaghaṇatvaya innoo zone qalalan ee kiiloomitir kasta oo laba jibbaaran badan qofka hal 10 50 ama kiiloomitir oo laba jibbaaran, waayo, mid kasta oo u muuqataa in ay leeyihiin qoys nuclear ay ku noolaadaan isbarbardhigga. Janaghaṇatvaya dooxada zone qalalan ay noqon lahaayeen kuwa ku saabsan afar jeer ka badan qiyaasta. Inta badan dadka waxay leeyihiin in ay ku noolaadaan nolol sida ay ballaarinta tartiibta ah ee dalxiiska iyo ugaarsiga xayawaanka dhalidda ku haboon iyo khudrada iyo sidaas daraaddeed in ay ku noolaadaan degsiimooyinka filiqsanaa kalinkalaṭa ætikaraganimin nolosha dalxiiska.

cibaadaysi

Falalka kala duwan ee dhimashada ka dib ama isdaba-marinta ayaa si macquul ah loo aqoonsan karaa, halka Sri Lanka da'da dhexe, iyo sidoo kale ujeedooyin kala duwan

Qayb ka mid ah gaashaallooyinka bini'aadamka ee lagu riday Aluthgama

Waxyaabaha marqaatiga uu ku hawlanaa hawlaha. Iyada oo goobaha dejinta innoo canjeero orpimet casaan ama jaalle ah hadhaagii lafaha aadanaha ayaa laga helay. Kuruwita baṭadom̆balenin kahavarṇa iyada oo shan layers of sano 31,000 jir ah ka hor Gurugalla canjeero lafaha aadanaha iyo laf-dhabarka maanta 7,700 sano jir ah, shan-story Gurugalla plated dhex ilkaha aadanaha helay. sano ka hor 5,400, godka fog-jir hiyan daaha ciidda cas canjeero Qalfoofkii Gurugalla ayaa laga helay. godka A ee sare ee madaxa la helay oo ay la adkaynayaa ee Ravana Ella Cave, garab isku dayaysa in ay ka dhigi god rinjiga jilicsan cas Gurugalla dhaladii aadanaha tusaale ahaan waxay aad u fiican. macdanta Gampaha adhyakṣakatvayen The Prof. Gamini Adikari ee wadashada Institute of Qadiimiga ee sanadkii 2010 ah, Attanagalla Pothgul Lena qodista ee skulls madhan ka heer sare ah wareer ku saabsan muhiimadda ay leedahay qayb daaha ciidda ee tuulada. Ayaa soo xulay laf in waa in la tixgeliyaa oo loo isticmaalo in lagu subagtaa sidii Gurugalla ah. Dalku wuxuu hadda ama Veddas Sinhaliiska iyo shibbanayaasha muuqan in caddeyn ayaa la shaaciyay iyo sidoo kale waa farqiga u dhexeeya Man Balangoda ku adivāsi abhicāramaya ifafaale kuwan oo hal dhibic si ay xaaladda a kala. Laakiin haddii hawsha, kuwaas oo ay adag tahay in uu sharaxo waxa Balangoda Man in.

Dhaqannada xuduudaha

Aaska ama gubista oo ka mid ah meydadka madhyaśilā kuwaas oo aflagaadeenaya Bellanbendipelessa, baṭadom̆balena Kithulgala Belilena Kuruwita iyo arrimaha meelaha fog-hiyanlena waxaa laga helaa. Sida laga soo xigtay cilmi fuliyay at Bellanbendipelessa ah qaddiimiga ah æm̆bilipiiiiṭiya dhow ka 1956 1961 ku 20 muddo aasay Arrimaha Human group habyaalada ayaa shaaca ka qaaday oo waxaa loo arkaa foomka ugu sareeya ee aadanaha Bellanbendipelessa meesha uu dalka shaaca ka qaaday arrimo dheeraad ah. Arrimahan waxay iyo jinsiga, waxay ahaayeen labada qaybood ee template ama arrimo inuu la kulmo, iyo in la xaqiijiyay sida dheelitirka aadanaha u dhexeeya sano ka badan 23-25. Xitaa la aqoonsado carruurta iyo dhallaanka, dheelitirka laftayda iyo ma tilmaamaya in da'da noocyada.

Horana, Bulathsinhala Fah-Hain Cave

Sida laga soo xigtay caddaynta, meydadka laguma aaso moolalka dhulka. Kithulgala Belleena iyo qodobada la yiraahdo Bathuvotamalena ayaa lagu aasay godad banaan, waxaana goobta la xiray qashinka-cuntada. Sida laga soo xigtey Kuruwita Batadombalena iyo godadka Fa-Hsien, tuugooyinkaas waa sifooyinka aasaasiga ah iyo guryaha aaska oo dhamaystiran. Waxay u muuqataa in qofka dhintay lagu aasay meel kale oo kale, oo dib ugu soo celiyey godka halkaas oo qaybo ka mid ah jidhka dhalaalay, oo mar kale lagu aasay. Waxay u muuqataa in lafaha lafdhabarka ah ujeedadaas tahay. In godadka ku yaal aagga qoyan, sidoo kale, waxay inta badan helayaan qaybo ka mid ah muraayadaha aadanaha oo dhif ah ayaa la kulma qaab-dhismeedka dhammeystiran. Sidaa darteed, tuubooyinkaas waxay muujiyaan astaamaha aaska oo aan dhamaystirnayn.

Dhismaha

Caddayn ku filan oo ah meel bannaan oo loogu talagalay godadka oo ahaa rukunkii hore ee Sri Lanka ayaan weli la shaacin. Maadaama aysan jirin wax xaqiiqo ah oo taariikhda Sri Lanka ah, ma jiraan wax ku filan ama dhammeystiran, sababtoo ah ma jiraan wax fursad ah oo lagu helayo caddaynta tan. Laakiin xaaladdan waxaa jirta fursad ay ku qaadato caadooyinka aadanaha. Waxaa la ogaaday in Koonfurta iyo Koonfur Bari Asiya, dadka asaliga ah waxay ku noolyihiin godka caadiga ah halkaas oo ay ku noolayeen qayb kasta oo qoyska ah. Sida laga soo xigtay Dr Siran Deraniyagala, waxaa la aasaasay in qof kastaa uu leeyahay aag ku saabsan 0.5 iyo in karbuun gaar ah laga helay qoys kasta. Xaalad la mid ah ayaa lagu arkay Kitulgala Beligene oo ku taal 16,000 sano kahor iyo caddeymo dhexdhexaad ah oo ku saabsan hal mitir mitirka 1 ayaa la helay.

Waxaa xusuus mudan in qaabka dhismaha ee taariikhiga ah ee Sri Lanka, caddaynta ugu horreysa ee tan ay ka timaaddo xilli-dhexaadkii hore. Kukulgala Beligene oo u dhow Awissawella ayaa loo aqoonsaday inuu yahay caddayn muhiim ah oo sanadkaan ku dhuftay 16,000. Derbiyada cirifka ah ayaa laga sameeyay hal dhagax, kaas oo qaada qaabka ashuun. Dr. Deraniyagala waxay aaminsantahay in cawska caleenta la daboolay aan lahayn moorant. Kuruwita Batadambalena waa arrin kale oo tan. Meelaha jilicsan, oo ku dhajiya saqafka ugu weyn, ayaa qayb ahaan loo kiciyey. Xannibaadahan, oo loo maleyn karo in lagu dhisay dhagax weyn oo dhagax ah si looga hortago dildilaaca godka, waa koofiyad laba ah.

Maqaalka soo socda: Farshaxanka dhexe iyo jirdhiska jirka

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Maqaalkani wuxuu markii hore ku daabacay www.archaeology.lk/sinhala on 2018.07.16.
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xayeysiis

2 COMMENTS

  1. Hadday dadka da'da dhexe ee dhex-dhexaad ah ay isticmaalaan hab lagu badalayo dadka bada-maqaarka, miyaanay ahayn dadka xeebaha ee dadka balangeedku degan yihiin?

    • Haa, waxaa jira tiro balaadhan oo bini'aadanimo ah oo ku yaalla Balangoda ku yaala xeebta xeebta ee ku yaalla Sri Lanka. Waxaa muhiim ah in la ogaado in tiro badan oo ah shaqo waxbarasho.

      Waxaan jeclaan lahaa inaan si naxariis leh kuugu sheego daraasadaha kor lagu xusay qaybaha ku habboon ee qodobkan.

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